LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum: 2020 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts

Over the past decade, the operation of 3GPP-based cellular networks in unlicensed spectrum has gone from being a perennial talking point to what is now a key element of mobile network densification strategies. Mobile operators across the globe are increasingly rolling out LTE RAN (Radio Access Network) infrastructure operating in unlicensed spectrum – primarily the globally harmonized 5 GHz band – to expand network capacity and deliver higher data rates, particularly in dense urban environments. These implementations are largely based on LAA (Licensed Assisted Access) technology which aggregates unlicensed channels with anchors in licensed spectrum to maintain seamless and reliable connectivity.


However, the practical applicability of unlicensed spectrum is not limited to the capacity enhancement of traditional mobile operator networks. Technical and regulatory initiatives such as MulteFire, CBRS (Citizens Broadband Radio Service) and sXGP (Shared Extended Global Platform) make it possible for enterprises, vertical industries, third-party neutral hosts and other new entrants to build and operate their own independent cellular networks solely in unlicensed spectrum without requiring an anchor carrier in licensed spectrum. Furthermore, in conjunction with the availability of new license-exempt frequencies such as the recently opened 6 GHz band from 5925 MHz to 7125 MHz, the introduction of 5G NR-U in 3GPPs Release 16 specifications paves the way for 5G NR deployments in unlicensed spectrum for both licensed assisted and standalone modes of operation. Given 5Gs inherent support for reliability and time-sensitive networking, NR-U is particularly well suited to meet industrial IoT requirements for the automation and digitization of environments such as factories, warehouses, ports and mining sites.

Despite the economic slowdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, competition from non-3GPP wireless technologies and other challenges, SNS Telecom & IT estimates that global investments in LTE and 5G NR-ready RAN infrastructure operating in unlicensed spectrum will reach nearly $500 Million by the end of 2020. The market is further expected to grow at a CAGR of approximately 40% between 2020 and 2023, eventually accounting for $1.3 Billion by 2023.

The “LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum: 2020 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents a detailed assessment of the market for LTE and 5G NR in unlicensed spectrum including the value chain, market drivers, barriers to uptake, enabling technologies, key trends, future roadmap, business models, use cases, application scenarios, standardization, spectrum availability/allocation, regulatory landscape, case studies, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also provides global and regional forecasts for unlicensed LTE and 5G NR RAN infrastructure from 2020 till 2030. The forecasts cover two air interface technologies, two modes of operation, two cell type categories, seven frequency band ranges, seven use cases and five regional markets.

The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report.










































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































 

Table of Contents Page Number List of Companies Mentioned
 1 Chapter 1: Introduction 24 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project)
 1.1 Executive Summary 24 5G-ACIA (5G Alliance for Connected Industries and Automation)
 1.2 Topics Covered 26 6Harmonics/6WiLInk
 1.3 Forecast Segmentation 27 7Layers
 1.4 Key Questions Answered 29 Aaeon Technology
 1.5 Key Findings 31 ABiT Corporation
 1.6 Methodology 33 Accelleran
 1.7 Target Audience 34 Accuver
 1.8 Companies & Organizations Mentioned 35 ACMA (Australian Communications and Media Authority)
 ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies)
 2 Chapter 2: An Overview of LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum 37 Affirmed Networks
 2.1 Spectrum: The Lifeblood of the Wireless Communications Industry 37 Airgain
 2.1.1 Traditional Exclusive-Use Licensed Spectrum 37 Airspan Networks
 2.1.2 Unlicensed Spectrum 37 Airtower Networks
 2.1.2.1 Dedicated License-Exempt Bands 38 Airwavz Solutions
 2.1.2.2 Opportunistic Unlicensed Access 38 Akoustis Technologies
 2.2 Why Utilize Unlicensed Spectrum for LTE & 5G NR Networks? 38 Alef Edge
 2.2.1 Alleviating Capacity Constraints on Mobile Operator Spectrum 38 Allen Vanguard Wireless
 2.2.2 New Business Models: Neutral Host, Enterprise & Private Cellular Networks 39 Alliance of Industrial Internet
 2.2.3 Resurgence of FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) Services 39 Alpha Wireless
 2.3 How Unlicensed Spectrum Differs From Traditional Licensed Frequencies 39 Alphabet
 2.3.1 Exclusive vs. Shared Use 39 Altiostar Networks
 2.3.2 License Fees & Validity 40 Altran
 2.3.3 Network Buildout & Service Obligations 40 Amazon
 2.3.4 LBT (Listen Before Talk) & Coexistence Mechanisms 40 Amdocs
 2.3.5 Power Limits & Other Restrictions 40 American Tower Corporation
 2.4 The Value Chain of LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum 41 Amit Wireless
 2.4.1 Chipset & Enabling Technology Specialists 41 ANACOM (National Communications Authority, Portugal)
 2.4.2 Terminal OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) 42 Anritsu Corporation
 2.4.3 LTE & 5G NR Infrastructure Suppliers 42 ANS (Advanced Network Services)
 2.4.4 Wireless Service Providers 42 Antenna Company
 2.4.4.1 Mobile Operators 42 Anterix
 2.4.4.2 Fixed-Line Service Providers 43 Apple
 2.4.4.3 MVNOs (Mobile Virtual Network Operators) 43 ARCEP (Autorité de Régulation des Communications Électroniques)
 2.4.4.4 Towercos (Tower Companies) 43 ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan)
 2.4.4.5 Neutral Hosts 43 Artemis Networks
 2.4.4.6 Private Network Operators 44 Askey Computer Corporation
 2.4.5 End Users 44 ASOCS
 2.4.5.1 Consumers 44 ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute)
 2.4.5.2 Enterprises & Vertical Industries 44 ASUS (ASUSTeK Computer)
 2.4.6 Other Ecosystem Players 45 AT&T
 2.5 Market Drivers 45 Athonet
 2.5.1 Continued Growth of Mobile Data Traffic 45 ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
 2.5.2 New Revenue Streams: FWA, IoT & Vertical-Focused Services 46 ATN International
 2.5.3 Private & Neutral Host Network Deployments 47 AttoCore
 2.5.4 Unlicensed Spectrum Availability 47 Axell Wireless
 2.5.5 Lower Cost Network Equipment & Installation 47 Azcom Technology
 2.5.6 Expanding Ecosystem of Compatible Devices 48 BAI Communications
 2.6 Market Barriers 48 Baicells Technologies
 2.6.1 Cell Site Deployment Challenges 48 Ballast Networks
 2.6.2 Restricted Coverage Due to Transmit Power Limits 49 BBB (BB Backbone Corporation)
 2.6.3 Interference & Congestion Concerns 49 BBK Electronics Corporation
 2.6.4 Resistance From Other Spectrum Users 49 BearCom
 2.6.5 Competition From Non-3GPP Technologies 50 BEC Technologies
 2.6.6 Economic & Pandemic-Related Factors 50 Benetel
 Billion Electric
 3 Chapter 3: Enabling Technologies & Concepts 51 Black Box Corporation
 3.1 LTE-U 51 Blackned
 3.1.1 Channel Selection 51 BLiNQ Networks
 3.1.2 CSAT (Carrier Sensing Adaptive Transmission) 52 Blue Arcus Technologies
 3.1.3 Opportunistic On-Off Switching 52 Blue Danube Systems
 3.2 LAA (Licensed Assisted Access) 52 BNetzA (Federal Network Agency, Germany)
 3.2.1 LBT (Listen Before Talk): Category 4 & Category 2 LBT 53 Boingo Wireless
 3.2.2 FS3 (Frame Structure Type 3) for Unlicensed Carriers 53 Branch Communications
 3.2.3 Other LAA Design & Operational Aspects 54 BTI Wireless
 3.3 eLAA (Enhanced LAA) 54 Bureau Veritas
 3.4 FeLAA (Further Enhanced LAA) 54 BVSystems (Berkeley Varitronics Systems)
 3.5 5G NR-U (NR in Unlicensed Spectrum) 55 BYD
 3.5.1 Modes of Operation 55 CableFree (Wireless Excellence)
 3.5.1.1 Anchored NR-U 55 CableLabs
 3.5.1.2 Standalone NR-U 56 Caltta
 3.5.2 LBT-Based Channel Access 57 Cambium Networks
 3.5.3 Air Interface Refinements for NR-U 57 Cambridge Consultants
 3.5.4 Time-Synchronized NR-U & Future Developments 57 Carlson Wireless Technologies
 3.6 MulteFire 58 Casa Systems
 3.6.1 Supported Unlicensed Bands 58 CBRS Alliance
 3.6.2 Building on 3GPP-Specified LAA & eLAA Functionality 58 CCI (Communication Components Inc.)
 3.6.3 Modifications for Standalone Operation Without Licensed Anchor 59 CCN (Cirrus Core Networks)
 3.6.4 Neutral Host Access, Cellular IoT Optimizations & Additional Capabilities 59 CCSA (China Communications Standards Association)
 3.7 Japans sXGP (Shared Extended Global Platform) 59 CellAntenna Corporation
 3.7.1 License-Exempt Operation of 1.9 GHz Private LTE Networks 60 cellXica
 3.7.2 LBT for Coexistence With PHS & Other sXGP Networks 60 Celona
 3.7.3 Possible Use of 1.9 GHz as an Anchor Band for Local 5G Networks 60 Centerline Communications
 3.8 United States CBRS (Citizens Broadband Radio Service) 60 CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)
 3.8.1 Dynamic Three-Tiered Sharing of the 3.5 GHz CBRS Band 61 China Mobile
 3.8.2 Tiers of Authorization 61 Chunghwa Telecom
 3.8.2.1 Tier 1 – Incumbent Access 62 CICT (China Information and Communication Technology Group)/China Xinke Group
 3.8.2.2 Tier 2 – PALs (Priority Access Licenses) 62 Cisco Systems
 3.8.2.3 Tier 3 – GAA (General Authorized Access) 63 CITC (Communications and Information Technology Commission, Saudi Arabia)
 3.9 TVWS (TV White Spaces) 63 CITRA (Communication and Information Technology Regulatory Authority, Kuwait)
 3.9.1 Database-Assisted Access to Unoccupied TV Channels 63 ClearSky Technologies
 3.9.2 Possible Implementation Using 3GPP RAN Technologies 64 Codium Networks
 3.10 Integration & Aggregation With Unlicensed Non-3GPP Networks 64 Comba Telecom
 3.10.1 Core Network-Centric Integration 64 CommAgility
 3.10.1.1 System-Level WLAN Offload in LTE 64 CommScope
 3.10.1.2 Interworking With Non-3GPP Access Networks in 5G 65 Compal
 3.10.2 RAN Centric Offload & Link Aggregation 65 COMSovereign
 3.10.2.1 RALWI (RAN Assisted LTE-WLAN Interworking) 65 Connectivity Wireless Solutions
 3.10.2.2 RCLWI (RAN Controlled LTE-WLAN Interworking) 66 Contela
 3.10.2.3 LWA (LTE-WLAN Aggregation) 66 Contour Networks
 3.10.2.4 eLWA (Enhanced LWA) 66 Corning
 3.10.2.5 LWIP (LTE-WLAN Radio Level Integration With IPsec Tunnel) 66 Council Rock
 3.10.2.6 eLWIP (Enhanced LWIP) 67 Cradlepoint
 3.10.3 Multipath Protocols 67 Crown Castle International Corporation
 3.10.3.1 MPTCP (Multipath TCP) 67 CTIA
 3.10.3.2 MPQUIC (Multipath Quick UDP Internet Connections) 68 CTS (Communication Technology Services)
 3.10.4 Other Protocols & Techniques 69 CTU (Czech Telecommunication Office)
 Dali Wireless
 4 Chapter 4: Business Models, Use Cases & Applications 71 Dallas Love Field Airport
 4.1 Business Models & Use Cases 71 Danish Energy Agency
 4.1.1 Service Provider Networks 71 Dejero Labs
 4.1.1.1 Mobile Network Densification & Build-Outs 71 DEKRA
 4.1.1.2 FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) Broadband 72 Dell Technologies
 4.1.1.3 Mobile Networks for Cable Operators & New Entrants 73 Digi International
 4.1.2 Neutral Host Networks 73 Digicert
 4.1.2.1 Indoor Spaces 74 Digital Colony
 4.1.2.2 Large Public Venues 74 DKK (Denki Kogyo)
 4.1.2.3 Transport Hubs & Corridors 75 Druid Software
 4.1.2.4 High-Density Urban Settings 75 DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance)
 4.1.2.5 Remote and Rural Coverage 75 Dynabook
 4.1.3 Private Cellular Networks 76 EETT (Hellenic Telecommunications and Post Commission)
 4.1.3.1 Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses 76 EION Wireless
 4.1.3.2 Vertical Industries 77 ENACOM (Ente Nacional de Comunicaciones)
 4.1.3.2.1 Manufacturing 77 Encore Networks
 4.1.3.2.2 Transportation 77 Ericsson
 4.1.3.2.3 Utilities 78 ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea)
 4.1.3.2.4 Mining 78 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
 4.1.3.2.5 Oil & Gas 78 EXFO
 4.1.3.2.6 Healthcare 79 ExteNet Systems
 4.1.3.2.7 Education 79 Facebook
 4.1.3.2.8 Retail & Hospitality 80 Fairspectrum
 4.1.3.2.9 Governments & Municipalities 80 FCNT (Fujitsu Connected Technologies)
 4.1.3.2.10 Other Verticals 80 Federated Wireless
 4.2 Applications 81 Fibrolan
 4.2.1 Mobile Broadband 81 FreedomFi
 4.2.2 Home & Business Broadband 81 FRTek
 4.2.3 Voice & Messaging Services 82 Fujitsu
 4.2.4 High-Definition Video Transmission 82 Future Technologies Venture
 4.2.5 Telepresence & Video Conferencing 83 GCT Semiconductor
 4.2.6 Multimedia Broadcasting & Multicasting 84 GE (General Electric)
 4.2.7 IoT (Internet of Things) Networking 84 Gemtek Technology
 4.2.8 Wireless Connectivity for Wearables 85 Geoverse
 4.2.9 Untethered AR/VR/MR (Augmented, Virtual & Mixed Reality) 86 Getac Technology Corporation
 4.2.10 Real-Time Holographic Projections 87 Gogo
 4.2.11 Tactile Internet & Haptic Feedback 87 Goodman Networks
 4.2.12 High-Precision Positioning & Tracking 88 Google
 4.2.13 Industrial Automation 88 Granite Telecommunications
 4.2.14 Remote Control of Machines 89 Green Packet
 4.2.15 Connected Mobile Robotics 90 HCL Technologies
 4.2.16 Unmanned & Autonomous Vehicles 91 HFR
 4.2.17 BVLOS (Beyond Visual Line-of-Sight) Operation of Drones 92 Hitachi Kokusai Electric
 4.2.18 Data-Driven Analytics & Insights 93 Hon Hai Precision Industry (Foxconn Technology Group)
 4.2.19 Sensor-Equipped Digital Twins 93 HP
 4.2.20 Predictive Maintenance of Equipment 94 HPE (Hewlett Packard Enterprise)
 HTNG (Hospitality Technology Next Generation)
 5 Chapter 5: Unlicensed Spectrum Availability, Allocation & Usage 95 Huawei
 5.1 Candidate Frequency Bands for LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum 95 Huber+Suhner
 5.1.1 Sub-1 GHz Bands (470 – 700/800/900 MHz) 95 iBwave Solutions
 5.1.2 1.8 GHz DECT Guard Band (1780 – 1785 MHz, 1875 – 1880 MHz) 95 IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
 5.1.3 1.9 GHz sXGP/DECT Band (1880 – 1920 MHz) 96 IIC (Industrial Internet Consortium)
 5.1.4 2.4 GHz (2400 – 2483.5 MHz) 96 IMDA (Info-communications Media Development Authority of Singapore)
 5.1.5 3.5 GHz (3550 – 3700 MHz) CBRS Band 96 Infomark Corporation
 5.1.6 5 GHz (5150 – 5925 MHz) 97 Infosys
 5.1.7 6 GHz (5925 – 7125 MHz) 98 Infovista
 5.1.8 57 – 71 GHz 98 Innonet
 5.1.9 Other Bands 98 InnoWireless
 5.2 North America 99 Inseego Corporation
 5.2.1 United States 99 Insta Group
 5.2.2 Canada 99 Intel Corporation
 5.3 Asia Pacific 100 Intenna Systems
 5.3.1 Australia 100 InterDigital
 5.3.2 New Zealand 100 IoT4Net
 5.3.3 Japan 100 ip.access
 5.3.4 South Korea 101 IPLOOK Networks
 5.3.5 China 101 iPosi
 5.3.6 Hong Kong 102 ISED (Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada)
 5.3.7 Taiwan 102 ITU-R (International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector)
 5.3.8 Singapore 102 Jaton Technology
 5.3.9 Malaysia 102 JCI (Japan Communications Inc.)
 5.3.10 Indonesia 103 JEMS (Japan EM Solutions)
 5.3.11 Philippines 103 JIT (JI Technology)
 5.3.12 Thailand 103 JMA Wireless
 5.3.13 Vietnam 103 JRC (Japan Radio Company)
 5.3.14 Myanmar 104 Juni Global
 5.3.15 India 104 Kajeet
 5.3.16 Pakistan 104 Kementerian Kominfo (Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Indonesia)
 5.3.17 Rest of Asia Pacific 104 Key Bridge Wireless
 5.4 Europe 105 Keysight Technologies
 5.4.1 United Kingdom 105 Kisan Telecom
 5.4.2 Ireland 105 KLA Laboratories
 5.4.3 France 105 Kleos
 5.4.4 Germany 105 KMW
 5.4.5 Belgium 106 KORE Wireless
 5.4.6 Netherlands 106 Kyocera Corporation
 5.4.7 Switzerland 106 Kyrio
 5.4.8 Austria 106 Landmark Dividend
 5.4.9 Italy 107 Lekha Wireless Solutions
 5.4.10 Spain 107 Lemko Corporation
 5.4.11 Portugal 107 Lenovo
 5.4.12 Sweden 107 LG Electronics
 5.4.13 Norway 108 Lime Microsystems
 5.4.14 Denmark 108 Lindsay Broadband
 5.4.15 Finland 108 Linx Technologies
 5.4.16 Estonia 108 LS telcom
 5.4.17 Czech Republic 108 LTE-U Forum
 5.4.18 Poland 109 M/C Partners
 5.4.19 Greece 109 Maven Wireless
 5.4.20 Turkey 109 Mavenir Systems
 5.4.21 Bulgaria 109 MCMC (Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission)
 5.4.22 Romania 110 McWane
 5.4.23 Hungary 110 Memorial Health System
 5.4.24 Slovenia 110 Metaswitch Networks
 5.4.25 Serbia 110 Metro Network Services
 5.4.26 Russia 110 MIC (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Japan)
 5.4.27 Rest of Europe 111 MiCOM Labs
 5.5 Middle East & Africa 111 Microlab
 5.5.1 Saudi Arabia 111 Microsoft Corporation
 5.5.2 United Arab Emirates 111 Midco (Midcontinent Communications)
 5.5.3 Qatar 111 MitraStar Technology
 5.5.4 Kuwait 112 Mobile Mark
 5.5.5 Israel 112 Mobilitie
 5.5.6 South Africa 112 Motorola Mobility
 5.5.7 Rest of the Middle East & Africa 112 Motorola Solutions
 5.6 Latin & Central America 112 MRT Technology (Suzhou)
 5.6.1 Mexico 112 MSB (M S Benbow & Associates)
 5.6.2 Brazil 113 MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT, South Korea)
 5.6.3 Argentina 113 MTI (Microelectronics Technology, Inc.)
 5.6.4 Colombia 113 MTI Wireless Edge
 5.6.5 Chile 113 MTS (Mobile TeleSystems)
 5.6.6 Rest of Latin & Central America 114 MulteFire Alliance
 Multi-Tech Systems
 6 Chapter 6: Standardization, Regulatory & Collaborative Initiatives 115 Murray City School District
 6.1 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) 115 NBTC (National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission, Thailand)
 6.1.1 Releases 8-11: System-Level WLAN Offload 116 NEC Corporation
 6.1.2 Release 12: RAN Assisted LTE-WLAN Interworking 116 Nemko
 6.1.3 Release 13: LAA, LWA, LWIP & RCLWI 116 NetCity (GEOS Telecom/GEOS Holding)
 6.1.4 Release 14: eLAA, eLWA, eLWIP & CBRS Band 48 Support 117 Netgear
 6.1.5 Release 15: Further Enhancements & LAA/eLAA (Band 49) for CBRS 117 NetNumber
 6.1.6 Release 16: Anchored & Standalone 5G NR-U 118 Netvision Telecom
 6.1.7 Release 17 & Beyond: Future Evolution of 5G NR-U 119 NewEdge Signal Solutions
 6.2 ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions) 119 Nextivity
 6.2.1 IMSI Assignment & Management for CBRS 120 NGMN Alliance
 6.2.2 Additional CBRS-Related Efforts 120 Node-H
 6.3 CBRS Alliance 120 Nokia
 6.3.1 OnGo Certification Program for 3.5 GHz CBRS Equipment 121 Nominet
 6.3.2 CBRS Network Services & Coexistence Specifications 121 Nsight Telservices
 6.3.2.1 Release 1: Baseline Specifications for LTE Systems in the 3.5 GHz Band 121 NTC (National Telecommunications Commission, Philippines)
 6.3.2.2 Release 2: Enhanced Specifications in Preparation for OnGo Commercial Service 122 NuRAN Wireless
 6.3.2.3 Release 3: Incorporation of 3GPP’s 5G Definitions & Standards in the 3.5 GHz CBRS Band 122 Nutaq Innovation
 6.3.2.4 Release Independent Specifications for CBRS Identifiers 123 Ocado
 6.4 CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations) 123 Oceus Networks
 6.4.1 ECC (Electronic Communications Committee): Operational Guidelines & Technical Solutions for Spectrum Sharing in Europe 123 Octasic
 6.5 CTIA 124 Ofcom (Office of Communications, United Kingdom)
 6.5.1 Product Certification for 3.5 GHz CBRS Equipment 124 OnePlus
 6.6 DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance) 124 ONF (Open Networking Foundation)
 6.6.1 Advocacy Efforts to Promote Unlicensed & Dynamic Access to Spectrum 124 OPPO
 6.7 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) 125 Oracle Communications
 6.7.1 BRAN (Broadband Radio Access Networks) Technical Committee: Harmonized Standards for Wireless Access Systems 125 Panasonic Corporation
 6.7.1.1 WSD (White Space Devices) Operating in the 470 – 790 MHz Band 125 Panorama Antennas
 6.7.1.2 5 GHz RLANs (Radio Local Area Networks) 126 Parallel Wireless
 6.7.1.3 6 GHz RLANs 126 Parsec Technologies
 6.7.1.4 60 GHz Multi-Gigabit Wireless Systems 126 Pavlov Media
 6.7.1.5 Other Relevant Work 126 PCTEL
 6.8 IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) 126 PCTEST Lab (PCTEST Engineering Laboratory)
 6.8.1 Standards & Protocols for Interworking Between 3GPP & Unlicensed Technologies 127 Pierson Wireless
 6.9 ITU-R (International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector) 127 Pivot Technology Services
 6.9.1 International Regulation of Unlicensed Spectrum 127 Pivotal Commware
 6.10 LTE-U Forum 128 Polaris Networks
 6.10.1 Technical Specifications for LTE-U in Unlicensed 5 GHz Spectrum 128 Potevio
 6.11 MulteFire Alliance 128 PTA (Pakistan Telecommunication Authority)
 6.11.1 Specifications for LTE/5G NR Operation in Unlicensed Spectrum 129 QuadGen Wireless Solutions
 6.11.1.1 Release 1.0: LTE Operation in the Unlicensed 5 GHz Band 129 Qualcomm
 6.11.1.2 Release 1.1: Support for Industrial IoT & Sub-1/1.9/2.4 GHz Spectrum Bands 129 Quantum Wireless
 6.11.2 ECC (Electronic Communications Committee): Operational Guidelines & Technical Solutions for Spectrum Sharing in Europe 129 Qucell
 6.12 NGMN Alliance 130 Quectel Wireless Solutions
 6.12.1 Unlicensed Spectrum-Related Activates 130 Qulsar
 6.13 ONF (Open Networking Foundation) 130 Quortus
 6.13.1 Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Support in the Aether 5G/LTE ECaaS (Edge-Cloud-as-a-Service) Platform 130 Radisys Corporation
 6.14 Small Cell Forum 131 Ranplan Wireless
 6.14.1 Work Related to License-Exempt & Shared Spectrum Small Cells 131 RATEL (Regulatory Agency for Electronic Communications and Postal Services, Serbia)
 6.15 WhiteSpace Alliance 131 Raycap
 6.15.1 Promoting the Use of 3GPP, IEEE & IETF Standards for TVWS Spectrum 131 RCI (Rural Cloud Initiative)
 6.16 WInnForum (Wireless Innovation Forum) 132 Realme
 6.16.1 SSC (Spectrum Sharing Committee): CBRS Standards 132 Rearden
 6.16.1.1 Release 1: CBRS Baseline Standards 132 RED Technologies
 6.16.1.2 Release 2: Enhancements to CBRS Baseline Standards 133 Redline Communications
 6.16.1.3 Administration of Root Certificate Authority, Professional Installer Training & CBSD Certification Programs 134 Reliance Industries
 6.16.2 6MSC (6 GHz Multi-Stakeholder Planning Committee) 134 RF Connect
 6.16.3 Other Committees 135 RFS (Radio Frequency Systems)
 6.17 XGP (eXtended Global Platform) Forum 135 Rivada Networks
 6.17.1 Development & Promotion of the sXGP Unlicensed LTE Service 135 RKTPL (RK Telesystem Private Limited)
 6.18 Others 135 Rohde & Schwarz
 6.18.1 National Government Agencies & Regulators 135 Ruckus Networks
 6.18.2 Vertical Industry Associations 136 RuggON Corporation
 6.18.3 Non-3GPP Technology Alliances 136 Saankhya Labs
 SAC Wireless
 7 Chapter 7: Case Studies of Unlicensed Spectrum Deployments 137 Samsung
 7.1 AT&T: Tapping Unlicensed Spectrum for Mobile Network Densification & FWA 137 Sanjole
 7.1.1 Spectrum Type 137 SBA Communications Corporation
 7.1.2 Integrators & Suppliers 137 Select Spectrum
 7.1.3 Deployment Summary 137 Seowon Intech
 7.2 BBB (BB Backbone Corporation): 1.9 GHz sXGP-Based Private LTE Network Platform 140 Sequans Communications
 7.2.1 Spectrum Type 140 Sercomm Corporation
 7.2.2 Integrators & Suppliers 140 SGCC (State Grid Corporation of China)
 7.2.3 Deployment Summary 140 SGS
 7.3 BYD SkyRail: Unlicensed 5 GHz Wireless System for Railway Communications 142 Shanghai Smawave Technology
 7.3.1 Spectrum Type 142 Sharp Corporation
 7.3.2 Integrators & Suppliers 142 Siemens
 7.3.3 Deployment Summary 142 Sierra Wireless
 7.4 Release 1: CBRS Baseline Standards 143 SIPG (Shanghai International Port Group)
 7.4.1 Release 2: Enhancements to CBRS Baseline Standards 143 Sivers IMA
 7.4.2 Integrators & Suppliers 143 Small Cell Forum
 7.4.3 Deployment Summary 143 Smart City Networks
 7.5 Dallas Love Field Airport: Private LTE Network for Internal Operations & Passenger Experience 144 SmarTone
 7.5.1 Spectrum Type 144 SoftBank Group
 7.5.2 Integrators & Suppliers 144 SOLiD
 7.5.3 Deployment Summary 144 Sony Corporation
 7.6 Gogo: Capitalizing on Unlicensed 2.4 GHz Spectrum for LTE/5G-Ready A2G (Air-to-Ground) Network 145 Sony Mobile Communications
 7.6.1 Spectrum Type 145 Spectrum Effect
 7.6.2 Integrators & Suppliers 145 Spirent Communications
 7.6.3 Deployment Summary 145 Sporton International
 7.7 Memorial Health System: LTE-Based CBRS Network to Support COVID-19 Response Efforts 147 SQUAN
 7.7.1 Spectrum Type 147 SSC (Shared Spectrum Company)
 7.7.2 Integrators & Suppliers 147 Star Solutions
 7.7.3 Deployment Summary 147 STEP CG
 7.8 Midco (Midcontinent Communications): Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum for Rural Broadband Connectivity 148 STL (Sterlite Technologies Ltd)
 7.8.1 Spectrum Type 148 Subtel (Subsecretaría de Telecomunicaciones de Chile)
 7.8.2 Integrators & Suppliers 148 Sunwave Communications
 7.8.3 Deployment Summary 148 SureSite Consulting Group
 7.9 MTS (Mobile TeleSystems): Delivering Gigabit-Grade LTE Services Using LAA Technology 149 Suzhou Aquila Solutions (Aquila Wireless)
 7.9.1 Spectrum Type 149 Syniverse Technologies
 7.9.2 Integrators & Suppliers 149 T&W (Shenzhen Gongjin Electronics)
 7.9.3 Deployment Summary 149 Tait Communications
 7.10 Murray City School District: LTE-Based Private CBRS Network for K-12 Education 150 Tango Networks
 7.10.1 Spectrum Type 150 Taoglas
 7.10.2 Integrators & Suppliers 150 Teal Communications
 7.10.3 Deployment Summary 150 Tecore Networks
 7.11 NetCity (GEOS Telecom): Unlicensed Sub-1 GHz LTE Network for AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure) 151 Telewave
 7.11.1 Spectrum Type 151 Teleworld Solutions
 7.11.2 Integrators & Suppliers 151 Telit Communications
 7.11.3 Deployment Summary 151 Telrad Networks
 7.12 Ocado: Custom-Built LTE Network Over Unlicensed 5 GHz Spectrum for Warehouse Automation 153 Telsasoft
 7.12.1 Spectrum Type 153 Tessares
 7.12.2 Integrators & Suppliers 153 TESSCO Technologies
 7.12.3 Deployment Summary 153 ThinkRF
 7.13 RCI (Rural Cloud Initiative): Building the Farm of the Future With CBRS Spectrum 155 Tilson
 7.13.1 Spectrum Type 155 TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile)
 7.13.2 Integrators & Suppliers 155 TLC Solutions
 7.13.3 Deployment Summary 155 TRA (Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, United Arab Emirates)
 7.14 SmarTone: Effectively Managing Traffic Surges With Strategically Located LAA Small Cells 156 Traficom (Transport and Communications Agency, Finland)
 7.14.1 Spectrum Type 156 Transit Wireless
 7.14.2 Integrators & Suppliers 156 Trilogy Networks
 7.14.3 Deployment Summary 156 TSDSI (Telecommunications Standards Development Society, India)
 7.15 URSYS: Bringing Cellular Connectivity to Rural Areas and Outlying Regions With Unlicensed Spectrum 157 TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea)
 7.15.1 Spectrum Type 157 TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan)
 7.15.2 Integrators & Suppliers 157 TÜV SÜD
 7.15.3 Deployment Summary 157 U.S. FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
 7.16 Verizon Communications: Exploiting 5 GHz & 3.5 GHz CBRS Spectrum to Address Capacity Demands 158 Ubicquia
 7.16.1 Spectrum Type 158 UKE (Office of Electronic Communications, Poland)
 7.16.2 Integrators & Suppliers 158 UL
 7.16.3 Deployment Summary 158 Unizyx Holding Corporation
 7.17 Vodacom Group: Employing Unlicensed 5 GHz Spectrum To Improve LTE Network Capacity & Performance 161 URSYS
 7.17.1 Spectrum Type 161 Valid8
 7.17.2 Integrators & Suppliers 161 Vapor IO
 7.17.3 Deployment Summary 161 Ventev
 7.18 Yangshan Port: Unlicensed 5 GHz LTE Network for Automated Container Terminal Operations 162 Verizon Communications
 7.18.1 Spectrum Type 162 Vertical Bridge
 7.18.2 Integrators & Suppliers 162 Verveba Telecom
 7.18.3 Deployment Summary 162 Viavi Solutions
 Virtual Network Communications
 8 Chapter 8: Market Sizing & Forecasts 164 Vivo
 8.1 Global Outlook for LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum 164 Vodacom Group
 8.2 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology 165 Wave Wireless
 8.2.1 Unlicensed LTE 166 Wavesight
 8.2.2 5G NR-U 167 WBA (Wireless Broadband Alliance)
 8.3 Segmentation by Mode of Operation 168 Westell Technologies
 8.3.1 Standalone 169 WhiteSpace Alliance
 8.3.2 LAA 170 Widelity
 8.4 Segmentation by Cell Type 171 Wi-Fi Alliance
 8.4.1 Indoor Small Cells 172 Wilson Electronics
 8.4.2 Outdoor Small Cells 173 Wilus
 8.5 Segmentation by Frequency Band 174 WIN Connectivity (Wireless Information Networks)
 8.5.1 Sub-1 GHz 175 Winncom Technologies
 8.5.2 1.9 GHz sXGP 176 WInnForum (Wireless Innovation Forum)
 8.5.3 2.4 GHz 177 Wireless Telecom Group
 8.5.4 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA 178 WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation)
 8.5.5 5 GHz 179 Wytec International
 8.5.6 6 GHz 180 XGP (eXtended Global Platform) Forum
 8.5.7 Higher Frequencies 181 Yangshan Port
 8.6 Segmentation by Use Case 182 Zebra Technologies
 8.6.1 Mobile Network Densification 183 ZenFi Networks
 8.6.2 FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) 184 Zinwave
 8.6.3 Cable Operators & New Entrants 185 Zmtel (Shanghai Zhongmi Communication Technology)
 8.6.4 Neutral Hosts 186 ZTE
 8.6.5 Private Cellular Networks 187 Zyxel Communications
 8.6.5.1 Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses 188
 8.6.5.2 Vertical Industries 189
 8.7 Regional Outlook 190
 8.7.1 North America 191
 8.7.2 Asia Pacific 192
 8.7.3 Europe 193
 8.7.4 Middle East & Africa 194
 8.7.5 Latin & Central America 195
 
 9 Chapter 9: Key Ecosystem Players 196
 9.1 6Harmonics/6WiLInk 196
 9.2 ABiT Corporation 197
 9.3 Accelleran 198
 9.4 Accuver (InnoWireless) 199
 9.5 ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies) 200
 9.6 Affirmed Networks (Microsoft Corporation) 201
 9.7 Airgain 202
 9.8 Airspan Networks 203
 9.9 Airtower Networks 205
 9.10 Airwavz Solutions 206
 9.11 Akoustis Technologies 207
 9.12 Alef Edge 208
 9.13 Allen Vanguard Wireless 209
 9.14 Alpha Wireless 210
 9.15 Altiostar Networks 211
 9.16 Altran 212
 9.17 Amazon 214
 9.18 Amdocs 216
 9.19 American Tower Corporation 218
 9.20 Amit Wireless 219
 9.21 Anritsu Corporation 220
 9.22 ANS (Advanced Network Services) 221
 9.23 Antenna Company 222
 9.24 Anterix 223
 9.25 Apple 224
 9.26 Artemis Networks (Rearden) 225
 9.27 ASOCS 226
 9.28 ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute) 227
 9.29 ASUS (ASUSTeK Computer)/Askey Computer Corporation 229
 9.30 Athonet 230
 9.31 ATN International 231
 9.32 AttoCore 232
 9.33 Axell Wireless 233
 9.34 Azcom Technology 234
 9.35 BAI Communications/Transit Wireless 235
 9.36 Baicells Technologies 236
 9.37 Ballast Networks 237
 9.38 BearCom 238
 9.39 BEC Technologies 239
 9.40 Benetel 240
 9.41 Billion Electric 241
 9.42 Black Box Corporation 242
 9.43 Blackned 243
 9.44 Blue Arcus Technologies 244
 9.45 Blue Danube Systems 245
 9.46 Boingo Wireless 246
 9.47 Branch Communications 247
 9.48 BTI Wireless 248
 9.49 Bureau Veritas/7Layers 249
 9.50 BVSystems (Berkeley Varitronics Systems) 250
 9.51 CableFree (Wireless Excellence) 251
 9.52 CableLabs/Kyrio 252
 9.53 Cambium Networks 253
 9.54 Cambridge Consultants 254
 9.55 Carlson Wireless Technologies 255
 9.56 Casa Systems 256
 9.57 CCI (Communication Components Inc.)/BLiNQ Networks 258
 9.58 CCN (Cirrus Core Networks) 259
 9.59 CellAntenna Corporation 260
 9.60 cellXica 261
 9.61 Celona 262
 9.62 Centerline Communications 263
 9.63 CICT (China Information and Communication Technology Group)/China Xinke Group 264
 9.64 Cisco Systems 266
 9.65 ClearSky Technologies 268
 9.66 Codium Networks 269
 9.67 Comba Telecom 270
 9.68 CommAgility (Wireless Telecom Group) 272
 9.69 CommScope/Ruckus Networks 273
 9.70 Compal 275
 9.71 COMSovereign 276
 9.72 Connectivity Wireless Solutions (M/C Partners) 277
 9.73 Contela 278
 9.74 Corning 279
 9.75 Council Rock 281
 9.76 Cradlepoint (Ericsson) 282
 9.77 Crown Castle International Corporation 283
 9.78 CTS (Communication Technology Services) 284
 9.79 Dali Wireless 285
 9.80 Dejero Labs 286
 9.81 DEKRA 287
 9.82 Dell Technologies 288
 9.83 Digi International 289
 9.84 Digicert 290
 9.85 DKK (Denki Kogyo) 291
 9.86 Druid Software 292
 9.87 EION Wireless 293
 9.88 Encore Networks 294
 9.89 Ericsson 295
 9.90 ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea) 297
 9.91 EXFO 298
 9.92 ExteNet Systems (Digital Colony) 299
 9.93 Facebook 300
 9.94 Fairspectrum 303
 9.95 FCNT (Fujitsu Connected Technologies)/JEMS (Japan EM Solutions) 304
 9.96 Federated Wireless 305
 9.97 Fibrolan 307
 9.98 FreedomFi 308
 9.99 FRTek 309
 9.100 Fujitsu 310
 9.101 Future Technologies Venture 312
 9.102 GCT Semiconductor 313
 9.103 GE (General Electric) 314
 9.104 Gemtek Technology 315
 9.105 Geoverse (ATN International) 316
 9.106 Getac Technology Corporation 317
 9.107 Goodman Networks 318
 9.108 Google (Alphabet) 319
 9.109 Granite Telecommunications 321
 9.110 Green Packet 322
 9.111 HCL Technologies 323
 9.112 HFR 324
 9.113 Hitachi Kokusai Electric 325
 9.114 Hon Hai Precision Industry (Foxconn Technology Group) 326
 9.115 HP 327
 9.116 HPE (Hewlett Packard Enterprise) 328
 9.117 Huawei 330
 9.118 Huber+Suhner 332
 9.119 iBwave Solutions (Corning) 333
 9.120 Infomark Corporation 334
 9.121 Infosys 335
 9.122 Infovista 336
 9.123 Innonet 337
 9.124 Inseego Corporation 338
 9.125 Insta Group 339
 9.126 Intel Corporation 340
 9.127 Intenna Systems 342
 9.128 InterDigital 343
 9.129 IoT4Net 344
 9.130 ip.access (Mavenir Systems) 345
 9.131 IPLOOK Networks 347
 9.132 iPosi 348
 9.133 Jaton Technology 349
 9.134 JCI (Japan Communications Inc.)/Contour Networks 350
 9.135 JIT (JI Technology) 351
 9.136 JMA Wireless 352
 9.137 JRC (Japan Radio Company) 353
 9.138 Juni Global 355
 9.139 Kajeet 356
 9.140 Key Bridge Wireless 357
 9.141 Keysight Technologies 358
 9.142 Kisan Telecom 360
 9.143 KLA Laboratories 361
 9.144 Kleos 362
 9.145 KMW 363
 9.146 KORE Wireless 364
 9.147 Kyocera Corporation 365
 9.148 Landmark Dividend 366
 9.149 Lekha Wireless Solutions 367
 9.150 Lemko Corporation 368
 9.151 Lenovo/Motorola Mobility 369
 9.152 LG Electronics 371
 9.153 Lime Microsystems 372
 9.154 Lindsay Broadband 373
 9.155 Linx Technologies 374
 9.156 LS telcom 375
 9.157 Maven Wireless 376
 9.158 Mavenir Systems 377
 9.159 Metaswitch Networks (Microsoft Corporation) 379
 9.160 Metro Network Services 380
 9.161 MiCOM Labs 381
 9.162 Microlab 382
 9.163 Microsoft Corporation 383
 9.164 MitraStar Technology (Unizyx Holding Corporation) 385
 9.165 Mobile Mark 386
 9.166 Mobilitie 387
 9.167 Motorola Solutions 388
 9.168 MRT Technology (Suzhou) 390
 9.169 MSB (M S Benbow & Associates) 391
 9.170 MTI (Microelectronics Technology, Inc.) 392
 9.171 MTI Wireless Edge 393
 9.172 Multi-Tech Systems 394
 9.173 NEC Corporation 395
 9.174 Nemko 397
 9.175 Netgear 398
 9.176 NetNumber 399
 9.177 Netvision Telecom 400
 9.178 NewEdge Signal Solutions 401
 9.179 Nextivity 402
 9.180 Node-H 403
 9.181 Nokia 404
 9.182 Nominet 406
 9.183 Nsight Telservices 407
 9.184 NuRAN Wireless/Nutaq Innovation 408
 9.185 Oceus Networks 409
 9.186 Octasic 411
 9.187 OPPO/Vivo/OnePlus/Realme (BBK Electronics Corporation) 412
 9.188 Oracle Communications 413
 9.189 Panasonic Corporation 414
 9.190 Panorama Antennas 415
 9.191 Parallel Wireless 416
 9.192 Parsec Technologies 417
 9.193 Pavlov Media 418
 9.194 PCTEL 419
 9.195 PCTEST Lab (PCTEST Engineering Laboratory) 420
 9.196 Pierson Wireless 421
 9.197 Pivot Technology Services 422
 9.198 Pivotal Commware 423
 9.199 Polaris Networks 424
 9.200 Potevio 425
 9.201 QuadGen Wireless Solutions 426
 9.202 Qualcomm 427
 9.203 Quantum Wireless 429
 9.204 Qucell (InnoWireless) 430
 9.205 Quectel Wireless Solutions 431
 9.206 Qulsar 432
 9.207 Quortus 433
 9.208 Radisys Corporation (Reliance Industries) 435
 9.209 Ranplan Wireless 437
 9.210 Raycap 438
 9.211 RED Technologies 439
 9.212 Redline Communications 440
 9.213 RF Connect 441
 9.214 RFS (Radio Frequency Systems) 442
 9.215 Rivada Networks 443
 9.216 RKTPL (RK Telesystem Private Limited) 444
 9.217 Rohde & Schwarz 445
 9.218 RuggON Corporation 446
 9.219 Saankhya Labs 447
 9.220 SAC Wireless (Nokia) 448
 9.221 Samsung 449
 9.222 Sanjole 451
 9.223 SBA Communications Corporation 452
 9.224 Select Spectrum 453
 9.225 Seowon Intech 454
 9.226 Sequans Communications 455
 9.227 Sercomm Corporation 456
 9.228 SGS 457
 9.229 Shanghai Smawave Technology 458
 9.230 Sharp Corporation/Dynabook (Foxconn) 459
 9.231 Siemens 460
 9.232 Sierra Wireless 461
 9.233 Sivers IMA 462
 9.234 Smart City Networks 463
 9.235 SOLiD 464
 9.236 Sony Corporation 465
 9.237 Spectrum Effect 467
 9.238 Spirent Communications 468
 9.239 Sporton International 470
 9.240 SQUAN 471
 9.241 SSC (Shared Spectrum Company) 472
 9.242 Star Solutions 473
 9.243 STEP CG 475
 9.244 STL (Sterlite Technologies Ltd) 476
 9.245 Sunwave Communications 477
 9.246 SureSite Consulting Group 478
 9.247 Suzhou Aquila Solutions (Aquila Wireless) 479
 9.248 Syniverse Technologies 480
 9.249 T&W (Shenzhen Gongjin Electronics) 481
 9.250 Tait Communications 482
 9.251 Tango Networks 483
 9.252 Taoglas 484
 9.253 Teal Communications 485
 9.254 Tecore Networks 486
 9.255 Telewave 487
 9.256 Teleworld Solutions 488
 9.257 Telit Communications 489
 9.258 Telrad Networks 490
 9.259 Telsasoft 491
 9.260 Tessares 492
 9.261 TESSCO Technologies 493
 9.262 ThinkRF 494
 9.263 Tilson 495
 9.264 TLC Solutions 496
 9.265 TÜV SÜD 497
 9.266 Ubicquia 498
 9.267 UL 499
 9.268 Valid8 500
 9.269 Vapor IO 501
 9.270 Vertical Bridge (Digital Colony) 502
 9.271 Verveba Telecom 503
 9.272 Viavi Solutions 504
 9.273 Virtual Network Communications (COMSovereign) 506
 9.274 Wave Wireless 507
 9.275 Wavesight 508
 9.276 Westell Technologies 509
 9.277 Widelity 510
 9.278 Wilson Electronics 511
 9.279 Wilus 512
 9.280 WIN Connectivity (Wireless Information Networks) 513
 9.281 Winncom Technologies 514
 9.282 WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation) 515
 9.283 Wytec International 517
 9.284 Zebra Technologies 518
 9.285 ZenFi Networks 519
 9.286 Zinwave (McWane) 520
 9.287 Zmtel (Shanghai Zhongmi Communication Technology) 521
 9.288 ZTE 522
 9.289 Zyxel Communications (Unizyx Holding Corporation) 524
 
 10 Chapter 10: Conclusion & Strategic Recommendations 525
 10.1 Why is the Market Poised to Grow? 525
 10.2 Future Roadmap: 2020 – 2030 525
 10.2.1 2020 – 2024: Steady Growth of 5 GHz LAA, 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA & 1.9 GHz sXGP Deployments 526
 10.2.2 2025 – 2029: Commercial Maturity of 5G NR-U for Industrial IoT Requirements 527
 10.2.3 2030 & Beyond: Mass-Market Adoption of Unlicensed Cellular Networks 527
 10.3 Which Unlicensed Frequency Bands Will Dominate the Market? 528
 10.4 Leveraging 6 GHz Greenfield Spectrum for 5G NR-U Deployments 529
 10.5 Outlook for 60 GHz & Higher Frequencies 529
 10.6 Is Wi-Fi 6 a Threat to 5G NR-U? 530
 10.7 Densification of Mobile Operator Networks in the 5G Era 530
 10.8 The Emergence of New Entrants in the Cellular Industry 531
 10.9 Private Cellular Networks for Industrial IoT 531
 10.10 COVID-19 Pandemic: Impact on Unlicensed Spectrum Deployments 531
 10.11 Strategic Recommendations 532
 10.11.1 LTE/5G Equipment Suppliers & System Integrators 532
 10.11.2 Mobile Operators, Neutral Hosts & Other Service Providers 533
 10.11.3 Enterprises & Vertical Industries 533 


List Of Figures

List of Figures
 Figure 1: The Value Chain of LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum 41
 Figure 2: Anchored & Standalone NR-U 55
 Figure 3: CBRS Tiers of Authorization 62
 Figure 4: MPTCP (Multipath TCP) Proxy-Based Aggregation 68
 Figure 5: 3.5 GHz CBRS Three-Tiered Shared Spectrum in the United States 97
 Figure 6: Unlicensed Spectrum Technology Standardization in 3GPP Releases 8 – 17 118
 Figure 7: WInnForums CBRS Standards 133
 Figure 8: IoT Services Over BBBs sXGP-Based Private LTE Network Platform 141
 Figure 9: Licensed & Unlicensed Spectrum Use in Gogos ATG (Air-to-Ground) Network 146
 Figure 10: Ocados 4G-Based Wireless Control System for Warehouse Automation 154
 Figure 11: Verizons Spectrum Portfolio 159
 Figure 12: Yangshan Ports Unlicensed 5.8 GHz LTE Network 163
 Figure 13: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 164
 Figure 14: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 164
 Figure 15: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 165
 Figure 16: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 165
 Figure 17: Unlicensed LTE Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 166
 Figure 18: Unlicensed LTE Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 166
 Figure 19: 5G NR-U Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 167
 Figure 20: 5G NR-U Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 167
 Figure 21: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments by Mode of Operation: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 168
 Figure 22: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Mode of Operation: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 168
 Figure 23: Standalone Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 169
 Figure 24: Standalone Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 169
 Figure 25: LAA Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 170
 Figure 26: LAA Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 170
 Figure 27: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments by Cell Type: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 171
 Figure 28: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Cell Type: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 171
 Figure 29: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Indoor Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 172
 Figure 30: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Indoor Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 172
 Figure 31: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Outdoor Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 173
 Figure 32: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Outdoor Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 173
 Figure 33: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments by Frequency Band: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 174
 Figure 34: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Frequency Band: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 174
 Figure 35: Sub-1 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 175
 Figure 36: Sub-1 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 175
 Figure 37: 1.9 GHz sXGP Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 176
 Figure 38: 1.9 GHz sXGP Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 176
 Figure 39: 2.4 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 177
 Figure 40: 2.4 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 177
 Figure 41: 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 178
 Figure 42: 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 178
 Figure 43: 5 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 179
 Figure 44: 5 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 179
 Figure 45: 6 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 180
 Figure 46: 6 GHz Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 180
 Figure 47: Higher Frequency Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 181
 Figure 48: Higher Frequency Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 181
 Figure 49: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments by Use Case: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 182
 Figure 50: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Use Case: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 182
 Figure 51: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments for Mobile Network Densification: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 183
 Figure 52: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Mobile Network Densification: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 183
 Figure 53: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments for FWA: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 184
 Figure 54: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for FWA: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 184
 Figure 55: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments for Cable Operators & New Entrants: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 185
 Figure 56: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Cable Operators & New Entrants: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 185
 Figure 57: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments for Neutral Hosts: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 186
 Figure 58: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Neutral Hosts: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 186
 Figure 59: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments for Private Cellular Networks: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 187
 Figure 60: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Private Cellular Networks: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 187
 Figure 61: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments for Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 188
 Figure 62: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 188
 Figure 63: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments for Vertical Industries: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 189
 Figure 64: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Vertical Industries: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 189
 Figure 65: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments by Region: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 190
 Figure 66: Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 190
 Figure 67: North America Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 191
 Figure 68: North America Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 191
 Figure 69: Asia Pacific Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 192
 Figure 70: Asia Pacific Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 192
 Figure 71: Europe Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 193
 Figure 72: Europe Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 193
 Figure 73: Middle East & Africa Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 194
 Figure 74: Middle East & Africa Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 194
 Figure 75: Latin & Central America Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2020 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 195
 Figure 76: Latin & Central America Unlicensed Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2020 – 2030 ($ Million) 195
 Figure 77: Future Roadmap for LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum: 2020 – 2030 526
 Figure 78: Distribution of Unlicensed LTE & 5G NR Small Cell Shipments by Frequency Band: 2020 – 2023 (%) 528
  


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