The V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications Ecosystem: 2019 2030 Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts

Commonly referred to as V2X, vehicle-to-everything communications technology allows vehicles to directly communicate with each other, roadside infrastructure, and other road users to deliver an array of benefits in the form of road safety, traffic efficiency, smart mobility, environmental sustainability, and driver convenience. In addition, V2X is also helping pave the way for fully autonomous driving through its unique non line-of-sight sensing capability which allows vehicles to detect potential hazards, traffic, and road conditions from longer distances and sooner than other in-vehicle sensors such as cameras, radar, and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging).

Although legacy V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) technologies are currently in operational use worldwide for ETC (Electronic Toll Collection) and relatively simple V2I applications, advanced V2X systems – capable of supporting V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle), V2I and other forms of V2X communications – are beginning to gain broad commercial acceptance with two competing technologies vying for the attention of automakers and regulators: the commercially mature IEEE 802.11p/DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) standard, and the relatively new 3GPP-defined C-V2X (Cellular V2X) technology which has a forward evolutionary path towards 5G.

With an initial focus on road safety and traffic efficiency applications, Toyota and GM (General Motors) have already equipped some of their vehicle models with IEEE 802.11p-based V2X technology in Japan and North America. Among other commercial commitments, Volkswagen will begin deploying IEEE 802.11p on volume models in Europe starting from 2019, while Geely and Ford plan to integrate C-V2X in their new vehicles by 2021 and 2022 respectively. It is also worth nothing that a number of luxury automakers – including BMW, Daimler, Volkswagens subsidiary Audi, and Volvo Cars – already deliver certain V2X-type applications through wide-area cellular connectivity and supporting infrastructure such as appropriately equipped roadwork trailers.

Despite the ongoing 802.11p/DSRC versus C-V2X debate, regulatory uncertainty and other challenges, global spending on V2X communications technology is expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 170% between 2019 and 2022. SNS Telecom & IT predicts that by the end of 2022, V2X will account for a market worth $1.2 Billion, with an installed base of nearly 6 Million V2X-equipped vehicles worldwide.

The “V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications Ecosystem: 2019 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents an in-depth assessment of the V2X ecosystem including market drivers, challenges, enabling technologies, application scenarios, use cases, business models, key trends, standardization, spectrum availability/allocation, regulatory landscape, V2X deployment case studies, opportunities, future roadmap, value chain, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also presents market size forecasts from 2019 till 2030. The forecasts cover four submarkets, two air interface technologies, 10 application categories and five regions.

The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report.
 

Chapter 1: Introduction
Executive Summary
Topics Covered
Forecast Segmentation
Key Questions Answered
Key Findings
Methodology
Target Audience
Companies & Organizations Mentioned

Chapter 2: An Overview of V2X Communications
What is V2X Communications?
Key Characteristics of V2X Communications
Types of V2X Communications
V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle)
V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure)
V2P/V2D (Vehicle-to-Pedestrian/Device)
V2M (Vehicle-to-Motorcycle)
V2N (Vehicle-to-Network)
V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid), V2H (Vehicle-to-Home) & Adjacent-Concepts
Transmission Modes
Direct
Multi-Hop
Network-Assisted
V2X Message Sets & Service Capabilities
Periodic Awareness: CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message)/BSM (Basic Safety Message) Part 1
Event Triggered Safety Alerts: DENM (Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages)/BSM Part 2
CPM (Collective Perception Message)
MCM (Maneuver Coordination Message)
SPaT (Signal Phase & Timing)
MAP (Map Data Message)
GNSS Correction
SSM/SRM (Signal Status & Request Messages)
PSM (Personal Safety Message)
IVIM (Infrastructure-to-Vehicle Information Message), TIM/RSM (Traveler Information/Road Safety Message)
BIM (Basic Information/Infrastructure Message)
MCDM (Multimedia Content Dissemination Message)
Video & Sensor Information Exchange
Standard Voice & Data Services
PVD (Probe Vehicle Data)
PDM (Probe Data Management)
Other V2X-Specific Message Types
Wireless Technologies for V2X Communications
IEEE 802.11p/DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications)
C-V2X (Cellular V2X)
V2X Architecture & Key Elements
Vehicular OBUs (On-Board Units)
Non-Vehicular V2X-Capable Devices
RSUs (Roadside Units)
V2X Applications
V2X Application Software
V2X Middleware & Application Server
V2X Control Function & Cellular Network-Specific Elements
V2X Security Subsystem
Key Applications Areas
Road Safety
Traffic Management & Optimization
Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information
Transit & Public Transport
Commercial Vehicle Operations
Emergency Services & Public Safety
Environmental Sustainability
Road Weather Management
Autonomous Driving & Advanced Applications
Value-Added Services
V2X Business Models
B2C (Business-to-Consumer): Premium Charge for Non-Safety Critical Applications
B2B (Business-to-Business): V2X Capabilities for Enterprise Vehicle Fleets, Road Operators & Transportation Agencies
B2B2X (Business-to-Business-to-Consumer/Business): Monetization Through Intermediaries
Market Drivers
Safety: Towards a Zero-Accident Environment
Traffic Efficiency: Minimizing Congestion & Streamlining Traffic Flow
Lessening the Environmental Impact of Transportation
Facilitating the Adoption of Smart Mobility Applications
Enabling Autonomous & Convenient Driving
Economic & Societal Benefits
Government-Led Efforts to Encourage V2X Adoption
Maturation of Enabling Wireless Technologies
Market Barriers
Lack of Critical Mass of V2X Equipped Vehicles
V2X Mandate Delays & Regulatory Uncertainties
The IEEE 802.11p vs. C-V2X Debate
Spectrum Sharing & Harmonization
Security & Privacy Concerns
Technical Complexity of Implementation
Business Model Challenges
Public Acceptance

Chapter 3: Key Enabling Technologies for V2X Communications
Legacy DSRC/ITS Technologies
CEN DSRC/MDR-DSRC/TTT-DSRC
915 MHz/UHF RFID
Active DSRC Systems
HDR DSRC
ITS Spot/ETC 2.0
VICS (Vehicle Information and Communications System)
IEEE 802.11p-Based DSRC Systems
WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment)
ITS-G5/C-ITS
ITS Connect/ARIB STD-T109
Other Variants
C-V2X Technology
LTE-V2X
5G NR-V2X
Interfaces for C-V2X Communications
PC5/Sidelink for Direct V2V, V2I & V2P Communications
Network-Coordinated Scheduling: PC5/Sidelink Transmission Mode 3
Distributed Scheduling: PC5/Sidelink Transmission Mode 4
LTE/NR-Uu for V2N Communications
Other Wireless Technologies
Complementary Technologies & Concepts
On-Board Sensors & ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems)
Sensing Capabilities for Safety & Awareness
Enabling Sophisticated ADAS Applications
Vehicle Safety Systems
Active Safety Systems
Passive Safety & Countermeasures
Other In-Vehicle Systems
HMI (Human Machine Interface)/Display Systems
Augmented Reality & HUDs (Head-Up-Displays)
GNSS & Precise Positioning
Enabling Lane-Level Accuracy for V2X Applications
Big Data & Advanced Analytics
Streaming & Processing Massive Volumes of V2X-Generated Data
The Significance of Advanced Analytics
Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning
Self-Learning for Complex V2X Applications
Powering Fully-Autonomous Vehicles
Cloud Computing
Centralized Processing for Delay-Tolerant & Wide-Area Applications
Edge Computing
Delivering Localized Processing Power for Latency-Sensitive V2X Applications
Network Slicing
Flexible Allocation of C-V2X Resources over Mobile Networks

Chapter 4: V2X Application Scenarios & Use Cases
Road Safety Applications
V2V Safety Applications
Longitudinal Collision Risk Warning
Forward Collision Warning
Frontal/Head-On Collision Warning
Side Collision Risk Warning
Intersection Collision Risk Warning
Emergency Electronic Brake Lights
Intersection Movement Assistance
Intersection Priority Management
Blind Spot Warning
Lane Change Assistance
Highway Merge Assistance
Do Not Pass Warning
Left/Right Turn Assistance
Pre-Crash Sensing & Mitigation
Post-Crash Warning
Queue Warning
Slow or Stationary Vehicle Warning
Vehicle Breakdown Warning
Control Loss Warning
Safety System Malfunction Warning
Wrong Way Driving Warning
Drowsy or Distracted Driver Warning
Overtaking Vehicle Warning
Tailgating Advisory
Transit Vehicle at Station/Stop Warnings
Vehicle Turning in Front of a Transit Vehicle Warning
V2V Situational Awareness
Decentralized Floating Vehicle Data
V2V Road Condition & Feature Notification
V2V Hazardous Location Alert
Cooperative Glare Reduction
Virtual Tow
V2I Safety Applications
In-Vehicle Signage, Speed Limits & Safety Information
Infrastructure-Assisted Collision Risk Warning
V2I-Based Emergency Brake Alert
Public Transport & Emergency Vehicle Prioritization
Intersection Safety & Management
Red Light Violation Warning
Railroad Crossing Violation Warning
Stop Sign Violation Warning
Stop Sign Movement Assistance
Blind Merge Warning
Exit Ramp Deceleration Warning
Wrong Way Entry Warning
Work Zone Warning
Curve Speed Warning
Reduced Speed Zone Warning
Lane Closure or Shift Warning
Restricted Lane Warnings
Oversize Vehicle Warning
Low Bridge Warning
Low Parking Structure Warning
V2I Situational Awareness
V2I Road Condition & Feature Notification
V2I Hazardous & Accident Prone Location Alert
Dynamic Roadside Lighting
Adaptive Headlamp Aiming
V2P/V2D, V2M & Other Safety Applications
Pedestrian, Cyclist & Other VRU (Vulnerable Road User) Detection
VRU Collision Warning
Pedestrian in Signalized Crosswalk Warning
Mobile Accessible Pedestrian Signal System
Transit Pedestrian Indication
Work Zone Safety Alerts for Maintenance Personnel
Animal Crossing Warning
Motorcycle Approach Indication
Motorcycle Approach Warning
Slow or Stationary Vehicle Warning for Motorcyclists
Traffic Management & Optimization Applications
Traffic Light Optimal Speed Advisory
Intelligent Traffic Signal Control
Intelligent On-Ramp Metering
Traffic Signal Priority for Designated Vehicles
V2N-Based Traffic Flow Optimization
Adaptive Traffic Jam Avoidance
Dynamic Speed Harmonization
CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control)
Flexible Lane Allocation & Control
ETC (Electronic Toll Collection)/Free-Flow Road Use Charging
Zone Access Control for Urban Areas
Road & Infrastructure Deterioration Diagnosis
Probe Vehicle Data
Traffic Operations
Road Network Monitoring, Maintenance & Planning
Other Transport Agency Applications
Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information Applications
Traffic Information & Recommended Itinerary
Enhanced Route Guidance and Navigation
V2X-Assisted Positioning
Point of Interest Notification
Fueling Information for Conventional, Electric & Alternative Fuel Vehicles
Limited Access Warning & Detour Notification
Work Zone Traveler Information
Enhanced ATIS (Advanced Traveler Information Systems)
Alternative Multi-Modal Transport Information
Smart Parking
Smart Park & Ride
Transit & Public Transport Applications
Dynamic Public Transport Operations
Real-Time Trip Requests
Demand-Responsive Scheduling, Dispatching & Routing
Transit Signal Priority
Intermittent Bus Lanes
Protection of Transit Connections
Transit Stop Request
Enhanced ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival) Service
Real-Time Ridesharing
Queue Management for Taxi Services
Route Guidance for the Visually Impaired
Mobile Payments for Public Transport
Commercial Vehicle Fleet & Roadside Applications
V2I-Based Data Collection for Fleet Management
Hazardous Material Cargo Tracking
Electronic Work Diaries
Freight-Specific Travel Information & Dynamic Routing
Drayage Operations Optimization
Container/Chassis Security & Operational Monitoring
Freight Signal Priority
Loading Zone Management
Smart Roadside Applications for Commercial Vehicles
Wireless Roadside Inspections
Smart Truck Parking
Intelligent Speed Compliance
Heavy Vehicle Road Use Monitoring
Emergency Services & Public Safety Applications
Approaching Emergency Vehicle Warning
Emergency Vehicle Preemption
Emergency Incident Traffic Management
Incident Scene Pre-Arrival Staging Guidance for Emergency Responders
Incident Scene Work Zone Alerts for Drivers & Workers
Emergency Communications & Evacuation
Vehicle-Associated Information Sharing for Emergency Response
Automatic SOS/Crash Notification Relay
Wide-Area Emergency Alerts
Disaster-Related Traveler Information Broadcast
Stolen Vehicle Notification & Tracking
V2X-Assisted Border Management Systems
Environmental Sustainability Applications
Eco-Traffic Signal Timing
Eco-Traffic Signal Priority
Eco-Approach and Departure at Signalized Intersections
Eco-Speed Harmonization
Eco-Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control
Eco-Ramp Metering
Eco-Lanes Management
Low Emissions Zone Management
Dynamic Emissions Pricing
Connected Eco-Driving
Eco-Traveler Information Dissemination
Predictive Eco-Routing
Eco-Integrated Corridor Management
Road Environment Monitoring
Road Weather Management Applications
V2X-Assisted Road Weather Performance Management
Real-Time Alerts and Advisories
Spot Weather Impact Warning
Road Weather Information for Commercial & Emergency Response Vehicles
Weather Responsive Traffic Management
Enhanced MDSS (Maintenance Decision Support Systems)
Monitoring of Road Maintenance Vehicles & Operations
Value Added Services
Electronic "Drive-Thru" Payments
Wireless Advertising
Automatic Vehicle-Based Access Control
V2V Instant Messaging
V2I & V2V-Assisted Internet Connectivity
Media/Map Downloads
Vehicle Software Provisioning & Updates
Personal Data Synchronization
Vehicle Caravan Organization
Remote Diagnostics & Maintenance
Rental Car Processing
Insurance & Financial Services
Electric Charging Station Management
Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging
Other Applications
Autonomous Driving & Advanced Applications
Semi & Fully-Autonomous Driving
Cooperative Automated Maneuvering
Vehicle Platooning
Coordinated Signaling for Autonomous Vehicles & Platoons
Real-Time HD Mapping & Autonomous Navigation
Extended Sensors for Situational Awareness
See-Through Visibility
Remote/Tele-Operated Driving
Precision Positioning-Assisted Vulnerable Road User Protection
Data Uploads for Autonomous Driving Algorithm Tuning
Connected Powertrain Optimization

Chapter 5: V2X Deployment Case Studies
AACVTE (Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Test Environment): Setting a Standard for the Nationwide Implementation of V2X
Historical Roots: SPMD (Safety Pilot Model Deployment)
Transition from a Model Deployment to an Operational V2X Environment
AACVTE Deployment Status
Supported V2X Applications
Key Achievements & Future Plans
AURORA Connected Vehicle Test Bed: Promoting Safe, Smart Transportation Through V2X
Supporting Efforts for Safe, Smart Transportation in British Columbia & Canada
AURORA Test Bed Overview
Supported V2X Applications
Future Research Ventures
BMW Group: Pushing C-V2X Adoption Worldwide
Commitment to C-V2X Technology
Efforts to Urge the Adoption of Technology-Neutral Legislation for V2X Communications
V2X Engagements in Europe & Abroad
Supported V2X Applications
Commercial Rollout Plans
CDOTs (Colorado Department of Transportation) RoadX: Building Colorado’s IoR (Internet of Roads) with V2X
RoadX "Connection" Action Area: V2X Development Program
V2X Deployment Status
Supported V2X Applications
Future Plans for Full-Scale Deployment
City of Wuxis LTE-V2X Project: Deploying Chinas First City-Level V2X Implementation
Establishing a City-Level LTE-V2X Demonstration Area
V2X Deployment Status
Supported V2X Applications
Next Steps & Plans for Full-Scale Adoption
Daimler: Leveraging Cellular Technology for V2X Applications
Daimlers Position on IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X Technologies
Car-to-X Communication via Cellular Radio
V2X Engagements Worldwide
Supported V2X Applications
Commercial Rollout Plans
Ford Motor Company: Fast Tracking C-V2X Technology into Vehicles
Validating C-V2X Technology in Ford Vehicles
V2X Engagements Worldwide
United States
Europe
China
Supported V2X Applications
Commercial Rollout Plans
GM (General Motors): Commercializing the Worlds First 5.9 GHz V2X-Equipped Vehicles
Rolling Out Production-Ready Vehicle Models with V2X Capabilities in North America
Key Applications Supported by GMs V2X System
V2V Applications
Planned Support for V2I, V2P & Other Applications
V2X-Equipped Vehicle Models
Prospects of Commercializing V2X in Other Markets
Groupe PSA: Pursuing Both IEEE 802.11p & C-V2X Technologies
Technology-Neutral Approach Towards V2X
V2X Engagements Worldwide
IEEE 802.11p
C-V2X
Supported V2X Applications
Commercial Rollout Plans
Groupe Renault: Testing V2X Connectivity Under Real-Life Traffic Conditions
Support for ITS-G5/IEEE 802.11p
SCOOP@F Project & Other V2X Engagements
Supported V2X Applications
Commercial Rollout Plans
HKT/PCCW: Utilizing V2X to Empower Smart & Safe Mobility in Hong Kong
Smart Mobility Consortium: Building a C-V2X Powered Smart & Safe Mobility System
Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations
Supported V2X Applications
Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology
InterCor (Interoperable Corridors): Streamlining the Implementation of Cross Border & Interoperable V2X Services
Delivering Interoperable V2X Services Through a Sustainable Network of European C-ITS Corridors
Relationship with the C-Roads Platform
V2X Deployment Overview
Dutch Section of the C-ITS Corridor (Netherlands-Germany-Austria)
SCOOP@F: French Corridor
United Kingdoms A2M2 Connected Corridor
Belgium/Flanders C-ITS Initiative
Supported V2X Applications
Testfests to Validate Common Specifications
ITS-G5 Services
GLOSA (Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory) Pre-Testfest
PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) Security
Hybrid ITS-G5/Cellular Communications
Cross-Border Interoperability
Next Steps: Project Completion, Harmonized V2X Specifications & Testing of Advanced V2X Applications
Ipswich Connected Vehicle Pilot: Laying the Technical Foundations for V2X Rollouts in Australia
Preparing for the Arrival of V2X on Queensland Roads
Pilot Planning & Deployment Status
Supported V2X Applications
Plans for On-Road Testing & Next Steps
JLR (Jaguar Land Rover): Making Journeys Safe, Comfortable & Stress-Free with V2X
Enhancing ADAS Capabilities with V2X for Safe & Comfortable Driving
V2X Engagements in the United Kingdom
Supported V2X Applications
Commercial Rollout Plans
NTT DoCoMo: Leading the Path Towards Connected Cars & Roads of the Future with V2X
Developing C-V2X Technology to Support Future Mobility Use Cases
Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations
Supported V2X Applications
Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology
SAIC Motor Corporation: Powering Intelligent Connected Vehicles with V2X
Advancing the Development of V2X to Facilitate Intelligent Driving
V2X Engagements in China
Supported V2X Applications
Commercial Rollout Plans
Telstra: Making Australias Roads Safe, More Efficient & Better-Prepared for Autonomous Driving with V2X
Telstras V2X Project: Focus on Safety, Traffic Efficiency & Autonomous Driving
Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations
Supported V2X Applications
Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology
Toyota Motor Corporation: Bringing V2X to Mass-Market Vehicle Models
ITS Connect: Commercializing the Worlds First DSRC-Based V2X System in Japan
Key Applications Supported by the ITS Connect System
V2V Applications
V2I Applications
Planned Support for V2P & Other Applications
V2X-Equipped Vehicle Models & RSU Installation in Japan
Future Plans to Introduce V2X-Equipped Vehicles in the United States & Other Countries
USDOT Connected Vehicle Pilots: Helping V2X Make the Final Leap into Real-World Deployment
NYC DOT (New York City Department of Transportation) Connected Vehicle Pilot
Pilot Deployment Overview
Supported V2X Applications
Current Status of the Pilot Deployment
THEA (Tampa-Hillsborough Expressway Authority) Connected Vehicle Pilot
Pilot Deployment Overview
Supported V2X Applications
Current Status of the Pilot Deployment
WYDOT (Wyoming Department of Transport) Connected Vehicle Pilot
Pilot Deployment Overview
Supported V2X Applications
Current Status of the Pilot Deployment
Future Plans for Post-Pilot Operations
Vodafone Group: Improving Road Safety & Traffic Efficiency with V2X
Creating a Step-Change in Road Safety & Traffic Efficiency
Initial Field Trials & Demonstrations
Supported V2X Applications
Future Plans for the Rollout of C-V2X Technology
Volkswagen Group: Pioneering the Rollout of V2X-Equipped Vehicles in Europe
WLANp: Group-Wide Implementation of IEEE 802.11p-Based V2X Technology in 2019
Supported V2X Applications
Efforts to Accelerate the Adoption of V2X Technology
Integrating V2X-Capable Roadside Infrastructure & Other Road Users
Audi: Delivering V2I Applications via On-Board LTE Connectivity
Ducati Motor Holding: Developing V2X Interoperability Between Motorcycles, Vehicles & Infrastructure
SEAT: Advancing V2X-Based Assisted Driving Applications
TRATON (Scania & MAN): Piloting Platooning & Commercial Vehicle Applications
Volvo Group/Volvo Trucks: Enabling Truck Platooning & Commercial Vehicle Applications with V2X
Utilizing V2X to Develop Platooning & Commercial Vehicle Applications
V2X Engagements Worldwide
Supported V2X Applications
Commercial Rollout Plans
Other Notable V2X Engagements
Automotive OEM Commitments
Mobile Operator-Led C-V2X Projects & Trials
Other Commercial, Pilot & Trial V2X Deployments

Chapter 6: V2X Spectrum Availability, Allocation & Usage
Frequency Bands for V2X Communications
Legacy V2I Systems
915 MHz
Other Sub-1 GHz Bands
2.4 GHz
5.8 GHz
Advanced V2X Technologies
760 MHz
3.4 – 3.8 GHz
5.9 GHz
Higher Frequencies
North America
United States
Canada
Asia Pacific
Australia
China
Japan
South Korea
Singapore
Taiwan
Thailand
India
Rest of Asia Pacific
Europe
EU & EFTA Countries
Turkey
Russia
Other Countries
Middle East & Africa
GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council)
Iran
Israel
South Africa
Rest of the Middle East & Africa
Latin & Central America
Brazil
Mexico
Rest of Latin & Central America

Chapter 7: Standardization, Regulatory & Collaborative Initiatives
3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project)
Release 14: LTE-V2X/Phase 1
Release 15: eV2X (Enhanced V2X)/Phase 2
Release 16: 5G NR-V2X/Phase 3
5GAA (5G Automotive Association)
5G/C-V2X Advocacy Efforts
Working Groups
WG1: Use Cases & Technical Requirements
WG2: System Architecture & Solution Development
WG3: Evaluation, Testbeds & Pilots
WG4: Standards & Spectrum
WG5: Business Models & Go-To-Market Strategies
5G-Connected Mobility Consortium
5G-Based V2X R&D Efforts
AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials)
Frequency Coordination for V2X Communications
V2X Policy, Deployment Guidance & Related Efforts
Work on Connected Autonomous Driving
ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers Association)
Connected & Automated Driving-Related Work
AECC (Automotive Edge Computing Consortium)
Edge Computing System Design for V2I & V2N Applications
Amsterdam Group
V2X Deployment Roadmap
Corridor Initiatives
Functional Specifications & Other V2X-Related Efforts
ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan)
ARIB STD T75: 5.8 GHz DSRC System for V2I Applications
ARIB STD T88: DSRC Application Sub-Layer
ARIB STD T110: DSRC Basic Application Interface
ARIB STD-T109: 760 MHz Advanced V2X System
U.S. ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy)
NEXTCAR (Next-Generation Energy Technologies for Connected & Automated On-Road Vehicles)
Use of V2X Connectivity for Vehicle Control & Powertrain Optimization
ASECAP (European Association of Operators of Toll Road Infrastructures)
V2X-Related Activities
Association of Global Automakers
Connected Automation Advocacy
ASTM International
Legacy DSRC Standards
ASTM E2213-03: 5.9 GHz DSRC MAC & PHY Specifications
ATA (American Trucking Associations)
V2X-Related Activities
ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
V2X Security Guidance & Requirements
Other V2X-Related Work
Auto Alliance (Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers)
V2X-Related Activities
AUTOSAR (AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture)
V2X Stack Specifications
C2C-CC (CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium)
BSP (Basic System Profile) for V2X Systems in Europe
PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) for V2X Security
Advocacy Efforts to Preserve the 5.9 GHz Band for ITS-G5
Other V2X-Related Efforts
CAICV (China Industry Innovation Alliance for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles)
V2X Working Group
CAMP (Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership)
SCMS (Security Credential Management System) for V2X Communications
Other V2X-Related Efforts
CAT (Cooperative Automated Transportation) Coalition
CAV-ELT (Connected and Automated Vehicle Executive Leadership Team): CAV-Focused Working Groups
V2I DC (Vehicle to Infrastructure Deployment Coalition): V2I Working Groups
CCC (Car Connectivity Consortium)
V2X-Related Projects
CCSA (China Communications Standards Association)
LTE-V2X Standardization
CEDR (Conference of European Directors of Roads)
V2X-Related Activities
ConVeX (Connected Vehicle-to-Everything of Tomorrow) Consortium
C-V2X Field Trials & Demonstrations
CEN (European Committee for Standardization)
CEN TC 278
CEN DSRC Family of Standards
EFC (Electronic Feed Collection) & V2I Applications
Standards for C-ITS/Advanced V2X Systems
CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization)
ITS-Related Standards
CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)
ECC (Electronic Communications Committee)
WG SE (Working Group Spectrum Engineering)
Frequency Arrangement for V2X Communications in Europe
C-ITS (China ITS Industry Alliance)
Chinese National Standards for V2X
CLEPA (European Association of Automotive Suppliers)
V2X-Related Activities
CMC (Connected Motorcycle Consortium)
Standardization for Motorcycle-Specific V2X Systems
Feasibility Testing & Prototyping
EATA (European Automotive and Telecom Alliance)
Efforts to Facilitate the Deployment of Connected & Automated Driving
ERTRAC (European Road Transport Research Advisory Council)
Working Group on Connectivity & Automated Driving
ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
TC ITS (Technical Committee Intelligent Transport Systems)
ETSI TR 101 607: C-ITS (Cooperative ITS) Release 1
ETSI EN 302 663: ITS-G5 Access Layer Standard
ETSI TS 102 724: Harmonized Channel Specifications for ITS-G5
ETSI TS 102 792: Co-Existence Between CEN DSRC & ITS-G5
ETSI TS 102 687/103 175: DCC (Decentralized Congestion Control) Mechanisms
ETSI EN 302 665: ITS Communications Architecture
ETSI EN 302 637-2: CAMs (Cooperative Awareness Messages)
ETSI EN 302 637-3: DENMs (Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages)
ETSI EN 302 895: LDM (Local Dynamic Map) Specification
ETSI TS 103 301: Protocols & Communication Requirements for Infrastructure Services
ETSI TS 101 539 Series: Safety-Related V2X Applications
ETSI TS 101 556 Series: V2I Applications
ETSI TS 102 894-1: Facility Layer Structure, Functional Requirements & Specifications
TS 102 890 Series: Additional Facility Layer Specifications
ETSI TS 102 894-2: Common Data Dictionary
ETSI EN 302 636 Series: GeoNetworking Protocol
ETSI TS 102 731, 102 940-943, 103 097: V2X Security Standards
Other Release 1 Standards
Work on C-ITS Release 2 & Advanced V2X Applications
ETSI TC ERM (Electromagnetic Compatibility & Radio Spectrum Matters)
ETSI EN 302 571: Harmonized Standard for ITS-G5 (5.9 GHz) Spectrum
ETSI EN 302 686: Harmonized Standard for 63 – 64 GHz ITS Spectrum
Other Complementary Standards
EU Mandates & Directives
Action Plan for the Deployment of ITS
Mandate M/453 on Cooperative Systems for Intelligent Transport
EU ITS Directive 2010/40/EU
Supporting Groups for the EU ITS Directive
EIC (European ITS Committee)
European ITS Advisory Group
Mandate M/546 on Urban ITS
Declaration of Amsterdam on Connected & Automated Driving
COM (2016) 766: EU C-ITS Strategy
Letter of Intent on Cooperative, Connected & Automated Mobility
Third EU Mobility Package
C-ITS Delegated Act Under Directive 2010/40/EU: Specifications for the Provision of C-ITS
EU-Funded V2X Deployment Initiatives & Projects
C-ITS Deployment Platform
C-Roads Platform
Cooperative ITS Corridor
InterCor (Interoperable Corridors)
CONCORDA (Connected Corridor for Driving Automation)
C-MobILE (Accelerating C-ITS Mobility Innovation & Deployment in Europe)
NEWBITS (New Business models for ITS)
CIMEC (Cooperative ITS for Mobility in European Cities)
CODECS (Cooperative ITS Deployment Coordination Support)
MAVEN (Managing Automated Vehicles Enhances Network)
TransAID (Transition Areas for Infrastructure-Assisted Driving)
Auto C-ITS
C-V2X Projects
5GCAR (Fifth Generation Communication Automotive Research & Innovation)
5GCroco (5G Cross Border Control)
5G-Carmen (5G for Connected & Automated Road Mobility in the European Union)
5G-Mobix (5G for Cooperative & Connected Automated Mobility on X-Border Corridors)
Other EU-Funded Projects
CAD (Connected Automated Driving) Initiative
ARCADE (Aligning Research & Innovation for Connected & Automated Driving in Europe)
CARTRE (Coordination of Automated Road Transport Deployment for Europe)
SCOUT (Safe & COnnected AUtomation in Road Transport)
EUCAD (European Conference on Connected & Automated Driving)
Round Table on CAD (Connected & Automated Driving)
Gear 2030 HLG (High Level Group)
EU-US C-ITS Task Force
HWG (Standards Harmonization Working Group) & HTGs (Harmonization Task Groups)
HTG 1: ITS Security
HTG 2: BSM (Basic Safety Message)/CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message) Harmonization
HTG 3: ITS Communications
HTG 4/5: Infrastructure Messages
HTG 6: C-ITS Security Policy
HTG 7: Standards Selection, Gap Analysis & Identifiers
HTG 8 & 9: Candidate Future Work Items
GCF (Global Certification Forum)
C-V2X Certification Program
GENIVI Alliance
V2X-Related Activities
GSMA
C-V2X Advocacy Efforts
IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
ISO/IEC JTC 1
SC31 WG4: RFID Standards for V2I Applications
Other V2X-Related Standardization Activities
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
IEEE 802.11p/OCB for V2X Communications
IEEE 1609.x Family of Standards for WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments)
IEEE 802.11 NGV (Next Generation V2X) Study Group
IEEE 802.11bd Amendment Project
IEEE P2040 for Connected, Automated & Intelligent Vehicles
IEEE P2690 for Charging Network Management Protocol in Electric Vehicle Charging Systems
Other Relevant Standards
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
IPWAVE (IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments) WG
IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB
IMDA (Info-Communications Media Development Authority, Singapore)
TSAC (Telecommunications Standards Advisory Committee)
Technical Specification for DSRC
IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group
C-V2X Working Group
ISED (Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada)
Spectrum Allocation for V2X
RSS-252: Certification Requirements for V2X OBU Devices
ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
TC 204
V2X Communications
V2X Applications & Complementary Technologies
V2X Security
ITE (Institute of Transportation Engineers)
Connected Vehicle Initiative
Cybersecurity Framework & Tools for Roadway Infrastructure
Other V2X-Related Efforts
ITS America (Intelligent Transportation Society of America)
V2X Spectrum Advocacy
V2X Task Force
Other V2X-Related Efforts
ERTICO – ITS Europe
V2X Research, Pilot & Deployment Project Management
Other Efforts Related to Connected & Automated Driving
Other National & Regional ITS Representative Societies
ATEC ITS France
ITS Asia-Pacific
ITS Australia
ITS Canada
ITS China
ITS Japan
ITS Korea
ITS Singapore
ITS Taiwan
ITS UK (United Kingdom)
Others
ITS Connect Promotion Consortium
TD-001: Inter-Vehicle Communication Message Specifications
Other Specifications & Guidelines
ITS Info-Communications Forum
Guidelines for 760 MHz & 5.8 GHz V2X Systems
Work on C-V2X/Technology-Neutral Applications
ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
ITU-R (ITU Radiocommunication Sector)
SG5 WP5A, WG 5A-5 (Study Group 5, Working Party 5A, Working Group 5)
M.1453: ITS – DSRC at 5.8 GHz
M.1890: Guidelines & Objectives for ITS
M.2084: Radio Interface Standards of V2X Communications for ITS Applications
M.[ITS_FRQ]: Harmonization of Frequency Bands for ITS
V2X-Related Study Items & Supplementary Reports
ITU-T (ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector)
SG17: Recommendations for V2X Security
SG20: Framework & Requirements for C-ITS/Safety-Related Services
V2X-Related Recommendations in Other SGs
CITS (Collaboration on ITS Communication Standards)
JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association)
V2X-Related Standards
JSAE (Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan)
ITS Standardization Committee
V2X-Related Standardization Work
KATS (Korean Agency for Technology and Standards)
V2X-Related Standardization Efforts
KSAE (Korean Society Automotive Engineers)
V2X-Related Activities
Linux Foundation
AGL (Automotive Grade Linux): Open Software Stack for Connected Vehicles
MEMA (Motor & Equipment Manufacturers Association)
V2X-Related Activities
MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, China)
CAICT (China Academy of Information and Communications Technology)
V2X Development, Testing & Promotion in China
MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan)
V2X Deployment & Related Efforts
MOLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, South Korea)
C-ITS Pilot Project
Other V2X Related Efforts
U.S. NCHRP (National Cooperative Highway Research Program)
NCHRP 20-102: Impacts of Connected Vehicles & Automated Vehicles on State & Local Transportation Agencies
NCHRP 03-127: Cybersecurity of Traffic Management Systems
NCHRP 20-24(98): Connected/Automated Vehicle Research Roadmap for AASHTO
Other Projects
NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association)
NTCIP (National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol)
NGMN Alliance
V2X Task Force & White Paper
NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan)
V2X-Related Activities
U.S. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
CSF (Cybersecurity Framework)
Application of NISTs CSF to Connected Vehicle Environments
OICA (International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers)
V2X Standards Harmonization Efforts
OmniAir Consortium
Connected Vehicle Certification Program
Other V2X-Related Activities
oneM2M
V2X-Related Standardization Efforts
PIARC (World Road Association)
Task Force B.1: V2X Technology in Road Design & Infrastructure
Task Force B.2: Automated Vehicles
Other V2X-Related Activities
POLIS (Cities and Regions for Transport Innovation)
V2X-Related Activities
SAE International
DSRC TC (Technical Committee)
SAE J2735: DSRC Message Set Dictionary
SAE J2945/x Suite of Standards for V2X Applications
Other DSRC TC Standards
C-V2X TC (Technical Committee)
SAE J3161: On-Board System Requirements for LTE V2X/V2V Safety Communications
Standardization Efforts for Advanced V2X Applications
SAE J3186: MSCS (Maneuver Sharing & Coordinating Service)
Addressing the Needs of Road Operators
Vehicle Cybersecurity Systems Engineering Committee
J3061: Cybersecurity Guidebook for Cyber-Physical Automotive Systems
Other Vehicle Cybersecurity Standards
Other V2X-Related Standards
SAE-China (Society of Automotive Engineers of China)
T/CSAE 53-2017: V2X Application Layer Standard
Other V2X-Related Efforts
Safety Spectrum Coalition
V2X Spectrum Advocacy
SIP (Japans Cross-Ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program)
SIP-adus (Automated Driving for Universal Services)
V2X-Related R&D Efforts
TAICS (Taiwan Association of Information and Communication Standards)
TC8 (Technical Committee 8): IoV (Internet of Vehicles) & Automated Driving
TCA (Transport Certification Australia)
C-ITS Standardization, Interoperability, Security & Related-Efforts
National Telematics Framework: Facilitating Telematics-Related V2X Applications
TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)
V2X-Related Advocacy Efforts
TIAA (Telematics Industry Application Alliance)
V2X-Related Standards, Demonstrations & Testing
TISA (Travelers Information Services Association)
V2X-Related Activities
Transport Canada
National Framework & Programs for Automated & Connected Vehicles
Canada-U.S RCC (Regulatory Cooperation Council): Connected Vehicles Work-Plan
TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea)
Vehicle Communications System Standards
TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan)
V2X-Related Standardization Efforts
UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)
WP.29 (Working Party 29): World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations
Working Party on Automated/Autonomous & Connected Vehicles
USDOT (U.S. Department of Transportation)
ITS Joint Program Office
CV (Connected Vehicle) Program
CV Pilot Deployments
CV Application Prototyping
Connected Autonomous Vehicle Research
ITS Standards Program
ARC-IT (Architecture Reference for Cooperative & Intelligent Transportation)
U.S. NHTSA (National Highway Transportation Safety Administration)
FMVSS 150: V2V NPRM (Notice of Proposed Rulemaking) for Light Vehicles
Heavy Vehicle V2V Research
DOT HS 812 333: Cybersecurity for Modern Vehicles
U.S. FHWA (Federal Highway Administration)
V2I Deployment Guidance
CARMA (Cooperative Automation Research Mobility Applications) Platform
U.S. FMCSA (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration)
V2X Applications for Commercial Vehicles
U.S. FTA (Federal Transit Administration)
V2X Applications for Public Transit Systems
VdTÜV (Association of Technical Inspection Agencies)
ITS-G5 Advocacy Efforts
VIIC (Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Consortium)
V2X-Related Policy Issues
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)
Automotive Working Group
VISS (Vehicle Information Service Specification)
RSI (Restful Service Interface)
Previous Work
Automotive & Web Platform Business Group

Chapter 8: Future Roadmap & Value Chain
Future Roadmap
Pre-2020: Early Commitments by Automakers & Other Stakeholders
2020 – 2025: Mass-Market Adoption of V2X for Road Safety & Traffic Efficiency
2026 – 2030: Towards Connected Autonomous Driving & 5G-Based V2X Applications
Value Chain
V2X Hardware & Software Suppliers
Automotive OEMs
Aftermarket Manufacturers
System Integrators
Application Service Providers
Communications Service Providers
Road Users & Operators
Other Ecosystem Players

Chapter 9: Key Ecosystem Players
A1 Telekom Austria Group
AASA/01LightCom
ADI (Analog Devices Inc.)
Airbiquity
Airgain
Alibaba Group
Alps Alpine (Alps Electric/Alpine Electronics)
Amphenol Corporation
Anritsu Corporation
Apple
Applied Information
Aptiv (Delphi Automotive)
Aricent/Altran
ARM Holdings
Arteris IP
Aston Martin Lagonda
ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute)
AT&T
Athena Group
Audi
Autotalks
Aventi Intelligent Communication
BAIC Group/BJEV
Baidu
Battelle
BCE (Bell Canada)
BlackBerry/QNX Software Systems/Certicom
BMW Group
BMW Motorrad
Boréal Bikes
Brilliance Auto (Brilliance China Automotive Holdings)
Broadcom
Bureau Veritas/7Layers
BYD
CalAmp/LoJack
Carsmart (Beijing Carsmart Technology)
CEST Co. (Center for Embedded Software Technology)
CETECOM
CEVA
Changan Automobile
Chemtronics
Chery
China Mobile/CMIoT (China Mobile IoT)
China Telecom
China Transinfo
China Unicom
Chunghwa Telecom
CiDi (Changsha Intelligent Driving Institute)
Cisco Systems
Clarion
Cohda Wireless
Commsignia
Confidex
Connected Signals
Continental
Cubic Corporation
Cubic Telecom
Cybercom Group
Cypress Semiconductor Corporation
Daimler
Daimler Trucks
Danlaw
Datang Telecom Technology & Industry Group/CICT (China Information and Communication Technology Group)
DEKRA
Delphi Technologies
Denso Corporation
Derq
Desay SV Automotive
DFM (Dongfeng Motor Corporation)
DT (Deutsche Telekom)
DT&C
Ducati Motor Holding
Econolite
EFKON
Ericsson
ESCRYPT/ETAS
eSSys
ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea)
Faraday Future
FAW Group
FCA (Fiat Chrysler Automobiles)
Ferrari
FET (Far EasTone Telecommunications)
FEV Group
Ficosa
Firefly LiFi (Firefly Wireless Networks)
Flex
FLIR Systems
Fluidmesh Networks
Ford Motor Company
Foresight Autonomous Holdings
Forward Electronics
Fraunhofer FOKUS (Institute for Open Communication Systems)
Fraunhofer HHI (Heinrich Hertz Institute)
Fraunhofer IIS (Institute for Integrated Circuits)
Fraunhofer SIT (Institute for Secure Information Technology)
Fujitsu
GAC Group (Guangzhou Automobile Group)
Geely Holding/Geely Auto
Gemalto
Genvict
GM (General Motors)
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
Gosuncn Technology Group
Great Wall Motor Company
Green Hills Software/ISS (INTEGRITY Security Services)
Griiip
Groupe PSA
Groupe Renault
HAAS Alert
Hancom MDS
Harada Industry
Helix Technologies
HELLA
HERE Technologies
Hino Motors
Hitachi
HKT/PCCW
HNTB Corporation
Honda Motor Corporation
HORIBA MIRA
HSAE/Hangsheng Technology
Huali/iSmartWays Technology
Huawei/HiSilicon
Hyundai Mobis
Hyundai Motor Group (Hyundai Motor Company/ Kia Motors Corporation)
IAV
IBM Corporation
IDnomic
Infineon Technologies
INRIX
Intel Corporation/Mobileye
InterDigital
Intertek
Invengo
Isuzu Motors
Iteris
ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan)
iTRONICS
ITT (IT Telecom)
Iveco/CNH Industrial
Jin Woo Industrial
JLR (Jaguar Land Rover)/Tata Motors
JRC (Japan Radio Company)
Juniper Networks
JVCKENWOOD Corporation
Kapsch TrafficCom
Karamba Security
Kawasaki Heavy Industries
KDDI Corporation
Keysight Technologies
KOSTAL Group (Leopold Kostal)
KPN
KT Corporation
KTM
Kymeta Corporation
Kyocera Corporation
LACROIX City/LACROIX Neavia
Lear Corporation
Leidos
Lenovo/Motorola Mobility
Leonardo
Lesswire/Prettl Group
LG Electronics/LG Innotek
LITE-ON Technology Corporation
LMT (Latvijas Mobilais Telefons)
Lucid Motors
Luxoft/Objective Software/DXC Technology
Lyft
Magna International
Magneti Marelli
Mando Corporation/Halla Group
Marben
Marvell
Mazda Motor Corporation
McLaren Automotive
Mediatek
MET Labs (MET Laboratories)/Eurofins Scientific
Michelin
Microchip Technology/Microsemi Corporation
Microsoft Corporation
MinebeaMitsumi Group
Mitsuba Corporation
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation
Mobile Mark
Molex/Laird CVS (Connected Vehicle Solutions)
Murata Manufacturing
NavInfo
Navistar
Navya
Nebula Link
NEC Corporation
Neology/SMARTRAC
Neoway Technology
Neusoft Reach
NEVS (National Electric Vehicle Sweden)
Nexar
Nexus Group
NI (National Instruments)
NIO
Nissan Motor Corporation
NJR (New Japan Radio)
Nokia
Nordsys
Noris Network
NTT DoCoMo
NXP Semiconductors
Oki Electric Industry
Oledcomm
OnBoard Security/Security Innovation
OPPO
Orange
P3 Group
PACCAR/DAF Trucks
Panasonic Corporation
Parsons Corporation
Peloton Technology
Penta Security Systems
Phantom Auto
Pioneer Corporation/ IPC (Increment P Corporation)
Proximus Group
Pulse Electronics
pureLiFi
Q-Free
Qianxun SI (Spatial Intelligence)
Qorvo
Qosmotec Software Solutions
Qualcomm
Quectel Wireless Solutions
RANIX
Redpine Signals
Renesas Electronics Corporation
Robert Bosch
Rohde & Schwarz
ROHM Semiconductor
RoyalTek
S.E.A. Datentechnik
SAIC Motor Corporation
Saleen Automotive
Samsung Electronics/HARMAN International
Sanjole
Sanyo Techno Solutions Tottori
Savari
SEAT
Sensefields
Sequans Communications
SGS
Shanghai Gotell Communication Technology Holdings (roam2free)
Siemens/Mentor/TASS International
Sierra Wireless
Sinclair Broadcast Group
SiriusXM/Automatic Labs
SK C&C
SK Telecom
Škoda Auto
Skyworks Solutions
Smart Mobile Labs
Smarteq Wireless/Allgon
Socionext
SoftBank Group
Spirent Communications
SsangYong Motor Company/Mahindra & Mahindra
STAR Systems International
STMicroelectronics
sTraffic
Subaru Corporation
Sumitomo Electric Industries
Sunsea AIoT/SIMCom Wireless Solutions/Longsung Technology
Suzuki Motor Corporation
Swarco/McCain
Synopsys
Taiwan Mobile
Taoglas
TAPCO (Traffic and Parking Control Company)
Tata AutoComp Systems
Tata Elxsi
TE Connectivity/Hirschmann Car Communication
Telefónica Group
Telenor Group/Telenor Connexion
Telit Communications
Telstra
Telus Corporation
Tencent
Terranet
Tesla
TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile)
Tome Software
TomTom
Toshiba Corporation
TowerJazz
Toyota Motor Corporation
TransCore
TRATON/Scania/MAN
Trek Bicycle Corporation
TTS (Traffic Technology Services)
TÜV Rheinland
TÜV SÜD
Uber Technologies
U-Blox
UL
Unex Technology Corporation
Unicore Communications/Beijing BDStar Navigation
Unisoc
Valens
Valeo
Vector Informatik
Veniam
Veoneer/Autoliv
Verizon Communications/Verizon Connect
Viavi Solutions
Vinli
Visteon Corporation
VLNComm
Vodafone Group
Volkswagen Group
Volvo Cars
Volvo Group/Volvo Trucks
VT iDirect
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Wanji Technology
Waymo/Alphabet/Google
Wayties
Wieson Technologies
WISeKey
WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation)
WSP Global
Xiaomi Corporation
Xilinx
Yamaha Motor Company
YoGoKo
Yokowo
ZF
Zotye Auto (Zotye Automobile International)
ZTE

Chapter 10: Market Sizing & Forecasts
Global Outlook for V2X Communications Technology
Segmentation by Submarket
V2X Terminal Equipment
V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue
Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
C-V2X
LTE-V2X
5G-NR V2X
IEEE 802.11p
IEEE 802.11p-2010
IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
V2X OBUs
V2X OBU Shipments & Revenue
Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
C-V2X
LTE-V2X
5G-NR V2X
IEEE 802.11p
IEEE 802.11p-2010
IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
V2X RSUs
V2X RSU Shipments & Revenue
Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
C-V2X
LTE-V2X
5G-NR V2X
IEEE 802.11p
IEEE 802.11p-2010
IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
V2X Applications
V2X Application Revenue
Segmentation by Application Category
Road Safety
Traffic Management & Optimization
Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information
Transit & Public Transport
Commercial Vehicle Operations
Emergency Services & Public Safety
Environmental Sustainability
Road Weather Management
Autonomous Driving & Advanced Application
Value-Added Services
V2X Backend Network Elements
V2X Backend Network Element Revenue
V2X Security
V2X Security Revenue
Global Installed Base of V2X-Equipped Vehicles & RSUs
V2X-Equipped Vehicles
Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
C-V2X
LTE-V2X
5G NR-V2X
IEEE 802.11p
IEEE 802.11p-2010
IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
V2X RSUs
Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
C-V2X
LTE-V2X
5G-NR V2X
IEEE 802.11p
IEEE 802.11p-2010
IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
Regional Outlook
Submarkets
V2X Terminal Equipment
V2X OBUs
V2X RSUs
V2X Applications
V2X Backend Network Elements
V2X Security
Installed Base
V2X-Equipped Vehicles
V2X RSUs
North America
Submarkets
V2X Terminal Equipment
V2X OBUs
V2X RSUs
V2X Applications
V2X Backend Network Elements
V2X Security
Installed Base
V2X-Equipped Vehicles
V2X RSUs
Asia Pacific
Submarkets
V2X Terminal Equipment
V2X OBUs
V2X RSUs
V2X Applications
V2X Backend Network Elements
V2X Security
Installed Base
V2X-Equipped Vehicles
V2X RSUs
Europe
Submarkets
V2X Terminal Equipment
V2X OBUs
V2X RSUs
V2X Applications
V2X Backend Network Elements
V2X Security
Installed Base
V2X-Equipped Vehicles
V2X RSUs
Middle East & Africa
Submarkets
V2X Terminal Equipment
V2X OBUs
V2X RSUs
V2X Applications
V2X Backend Network Elements
V2X Security
Installed Base
V2X-Equipped Vehicles
V2X RSUs
Latin & Central America
Submarkets
V2X Terminal Equipment
V2X OBUs
V2X RSUs
V2X Applications
V2X Backend Network Elements
V2X Security
Installed Base
V2X-Equipped Vehicles
V2X RSUs

Chapter 11: Conclusion & Strategic Recommendations
Why is the Market Poised to Grow?
Geographic Outlook: Which Countries Offer the Highest Growth Potential?
Review of V2X Engagements Worldwide
North America
United States
Canada
Asia Pacific
Japan
China
Rest of Asia Pacific
Europe
Middle East & Africa
Latin & Central America
Spectrum: Are There Any Feasible Choices Beyond 5.9 GHz?
Evaluating the Practical Benefits of V2X
The IEEE 802.11p/DSRC vs. C-V2X Debate: Which Technology will Succeed?
The Emergence of Two Opposing V2X Technology Camps
Is There a Clear Winner?
Flexible Approach: Different Technologies in Different Regions
IEEE 802.11bd: Is There a Future Evolution Path for 802.11p?
Can C-V2X Minimize the Cost of Roadside Infrastructure Build-Outs?
Which Applications Are Currently Supported by V2X-Equipped Production Vehicles?
Growing Focus on Motorcycle-Specific V2X Safety Applications
Use of V2V Communications to Support Truck Platooning Systems
Delivering V2X-Type Applications Through Wide-Area Cellular Connectivity
How Can V2X Facilitate Fully Autonomous Driving?
Addressing V2X Security Concerns
Strategic Recommendations
Automotive OEMs
V2X Technology & Solution Providers
Mobile Operators & Cellular Industry Specialists
Road Operators & Other Stakeholders

Chapter 12: Expert Opinion – Interview Transcripts
Cohda Wireless
Foresight Autonomous Holdings
Kapsch TrafficCom
Nokia
NXP Semiconductors
OnBoard Security
Qualcomm
Savari
 


List Of Figures

Figure 1: The V2X Communications Concept
Figure 2: DSRC-Based V2X Architecture
Figure 3: C-V2X Architecture
Figure 4: Levels of Driving Automation for On-Road Vehicles
Figure 5: Technical & Performance Characteristics of V2X Technologies
Figure 6: PC5 & LTE/NR-Uu Interfaces for C-V2X
Figure 7: Examples of VLC (Visible Light Communications)-Based V2X Application Scenarios
Figure 8: Conceptual Architecture for End-to-End Network Slicing in Mobile Networks
Figure 9: Autonomous Vehicle Generated Data Volume by Sensor (%)
Figure 10: Key Elements of the AURORA Connected Vehicle Test Bed
Figure 11: CDOT (Colorado Department of Transport)-Panasonic V2X Deployment Program
Figure 12: Daimlers Car-to-X Communication System
Figure 13: HKTs C-V2X Trial Network Architecture
Figure 14: Key Elements of NTT DoCoMos C-V2X Trial
Figure 15: V2V Applications Supported by Toyotas ITS Connect System in Japan
Figure 16: V2I Applications Supported by Toyotas ITS Connect System in Japan
Figure 17: TRATONs IEEE 802.11p-Based Truck Platooning System
Figure 18: C-V2X Evolution in 3GPP Releases 14, 15 & 16
Figure 19: CEPT Frequency Arrangement for V2X Communications
Figure 20: ARC-IT/U.S. National ITS Reference Architecture Structure & Organization
Figure 21: Future Roadmap for V2X Communications: 2019 – 2030
Figure 22: V2X Communications Technology Value Chain
Figure 23: Global V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 24: Global V2X Communications Technology Revenue by Submarket: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 25: Global V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 26: Global V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 27: Global C-V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 28: Global LTE-V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 29: Global 5G NR-V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 30: Global IEEE 802.11p Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 31: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 32: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 33: Global V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 34: Global V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 35: Global V2X OBU Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 36: Global V2X OBU Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 37: Global C-V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 38: Global C-V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 39: Global LTE-V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 40: Global LTE-V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 41: Global 5G NR-V2X OBU Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 42: Global 5G NR-V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 43: Global IEEE 802.11p OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 44: Global IEEE 802.11p OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 45: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 46: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 47: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV OBU Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 48: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV OBU Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 49: Global V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 50: Global V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 51: Global V2X RSU Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 52: Global V2X RSU Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 53: Global C-V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 54: Global C-V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 55: Global LTE-V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 56: Global LTE-V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 57: Global 5G NR-V2X RSU Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 58: Global 5G NR-V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 59: Global IEEE 802.11p RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 60: Global IEEE 802.11p RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 61: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 62: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 63: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV RSU Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 64: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV RSU Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 65: Global V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 66: Global V2X Application Revenue by Category: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 67: Global V2X-Based Road Safety Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 68: Global V2X-Based Traffic Management & Optimization Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 69: Global V2X-Based Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 70: Global V2X-Based Transit & Public Transport Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 71: Global V2X-Based Commercial Vehicle Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 72: Global V2X-Based Emergency Services & Public Safety Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 73: Global V2X-Based Environmental Sustainability Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 74: Global V2X-Based Road Weather Management Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 75: Global V2X-Based Autonomous Driving & Advanced Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 76: Global V2X-Based Value-Added Services Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 77: Global V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 78: Global V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 79: Global V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 80: Global V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 81: Global C-V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 82: Global LTE-V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 83: Global 5G NR-V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 84: Global IEEE 802.11p-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 85: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 86: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 87: Global V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 88: Global V2X RSU Installed Base by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 89: Global C-V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 90: Global LTE-V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 91: Global 5G NR-V2X RSU Installed Base: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 92: Global IEEE 802.11p RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 93: Global IEEE 802.11p-2010 RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 94: Global IEEE 802.11bd/NGV RSU Installed Base: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 95: V2X Communications Technology Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 96: V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 97: V2X OBU Shipments by Region: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 98: V2X OBU Shipment Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 99: V2X RSU Shipments by Region: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 100: V2X RSU Shipment Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 101: V2X Application Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 102: V2X Backend Network Element Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 103: V2X Security Revenue by Region: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 104: V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base by Region: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 105: V2X RSU Installed Base by Region: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 106: North America V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 107: North America V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 108: North America V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 109: North America V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 110: North America V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 111: North America V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 112: North America V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 113: North America V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 114: North America V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 115: North America V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 116: North America V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 117: Asia Pacific V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 118: Asia Pacific V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 119: Asia Pacific V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 120: Asia Pacific V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 121: Asia Pacific V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 122: Asia Pacific V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 123: Asia Pacific V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 124: Asia Pacific V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 125: Asia Pacific V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 126: Asia Pacific V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 127: Asia Pacific V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 128: Europe V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 129: Europe V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 130: Europe V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 131: Europe V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 132: Europe V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 133: Europe V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 134: Europe V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 135: Europe V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 136: Europe V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 137: Europe V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 138: Europe V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 139: Middle East & Africa V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 140: Middle East & Africa V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 141: Middle East & Africa V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 142: Middle East & Africa V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 143: Middle East & Africa V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 144: Middle East & Africa V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 145: Middle East & Africa V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 146: Middle East & Africa V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 147: Middle East & Africa V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 148: Middle East & Africa V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 149: Middle East & Africa V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 150: Latin & Central America V2X Communications Technology Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 151: Latin & Central America V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 152: Latin & Central America V2X OBU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 153: Latin & Central America V2X OBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 154: Latin & Central America V2X RSU Shipments: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 155: Latin & Central America V2X RSU Shipment Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 156: Latin & Central America V2X Application Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 157: Latin & Central America V2X Backend Network Element Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 158: Latin & Central America V2X Security Revenue: 2019 – 2030 ($ Million)
Figure 159: Latin & Central America V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 160: Latin & Central America V2X RSU Installed Base: 2019 – 2030 (Thousands of Units)
Figure 161: Global V2X-Equipped Vehicle Installed Base by Air Interface Technology: 2019 – 2022 (Thousands of Units)
 


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