The Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Network Ecosystem: 2023 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts

As the 5G era advances, the cellular communications industry is undergoing a revolutionary paradigm shift, driven by technological innovations, liberal regulatory policies and disruptive business models. One important aspect of this radical transformation is the growing adoption of shared and unlicensed spectrum – frequencies that are not exclusively licensed to a single mobile operator.
 
Telecommunications regulatory authorities across the globe have either launched or are in the process of releasing innovative frameworks to facilitate the coordinated sharing of licensed spectrum. Examples include but are not limited to the three-tiered CBRS (Citizens Broadband Radio Service) spectrum sharing scheme in the United States, Germanys 3.7-3.8 GHz and 28 GHz licenses for 5G campus networks, United Kingdoms shared and local access licensing model, Frances vertical spectrum and sub-letting arrangements, Netherlands geographically restricted mid-band spectrum assignments, Switzerlands 3.4 – 3.5 GHz band for NPNs (Non-Public Networks), Finlands 2.3 GHz and 26 GHz licenses for local 4G/5G networks, Swedens 3.7 GHz and 26 GHz permits, Norways regulation of local networks in the 3.8-4.2 GHz band, Polands spectrum assignment for local government units and enterprises, Bahrains private 5G network licenses, Japans 4.6-4.9 GHz and 28 GHz local 5G network licenses, South Koreas e-Um 5G allocations in the 4.7 GHz and 28 GHz bands, Taiwans provision of 4.8-4.9 GHz spectrum for private 5G networks, Hong Kongs LWBS (Localized Wireless Broadband System) licenses, Australias apparatus licensing approach, Canadas planned NCL (Non-Competitive Local) licensing framework and Brazils SLP (Private Limited Service) licenses.
 
Another important development is the growing accessibility of independent cellular networks that operate solely in unlicensed spectrum by leveraging nationally designated license-exempt frequencies such as the GAA (General Authorized Access) tier of the 3.5 GHz CBRS band in the United States and Japans 1.9 GHz sXGP (Shared Extended Global Platform) band. In addition, vast swaths of globally and regionally harmonized license-exempt spectrum – most notably, the 600 MHz TVWS (TV White Space), 5 GHz, 6 GHz and 60 GHz bands – are also available worldwide, which can be used for the operation of unlicensed LTE and 5G NR-U (NR in Unlicensed Spectrum) equipment subject to domestic regulations.
 
Collectively, ground-breaking spectrum liberalization initiatives are catalyzing the rollout of shared and unlicensed spectrum-enabled 5G NR and LTE networks for a diverse array of use cases – ranging from mobile network densification, FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) in rural communities and MVNO (Mobile Virtual Network Operator) offload to neutral host infrastructure and private cellular networks for enterprises and vertical industries such as agriculture, education, healthcare, manufacturing, military, mining, oil and gas, public sector, retail and hospitality, sports, transportation and utilities.
 
SNS Telecom & IT estimates that global investments in 5G NR and LTE-based RAN (Radio Access Network) infrastructure operating in shared and unlicensed spectrum will account for more than $1.4 Billion by the end of 2023. The market is expected to continue its upward trajectory beyond 2023, growing at a CAGR of approximately 27% between 2023 and 2026 to reach nearly $3 Billion in annual spending by 2026.
 
The “Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Network Ecosystem: 2023 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents a detailed assessment of the shared and unlicensed spectrum LTE/5G network ecosystem, including the value chain, market drivers, barriers to uptake, enabling technologies, key trends, future roadmap, business models, use cases, application scenarios, standardization, spectrum availability and allocation, regulatory landscape, case studies, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also provides global and regional forecasts for shared and unlicensed spectrum LTE/5G RAN infrastructure from 2023 to 2030. The forecasts cover two air interface technologies, two cell type categories, two spectrum licensing models, 15 frequency bands, seven use cases and five regional markets.
 
The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report.
 

Topics Covered

The report covers the following topics:
- Introduction to shared and unlicensed spectrum LTE/5G networks
- Value chain and ecosystem structure
- Market drivers and challenges
- Enabling technologies and concepts, including CBRS, LSA/eLSA, local area licensing, AFC, 5G NR-U, LTE-U, LAA/eLAA/FeLAA, sXGP and MulteFire
- Key trends such as the growing prevalence of private cellular networks in industrial and enterprise settings, neutral host small cells, fixed wireless broadband rollouts, MVNO offload and mobile network densification
- Business models, use cases and application scenarios
- Future roadmap of shared and unlicensed spectrum LTE/5G networks
- Spectrum availability, allocation and usage across the global, regional and national domains
- Standardization, regulatory and collaborative initiatives
- 100 case studies of 5G NR and LTE deployments in shared and unlicensed spectrum
- Profiles and strategies of more than 400 ecosystem players
- Strategic recommendations for 5G NR and LTE equipment suppliers, system integrators, service providers, enterprises and vertical industries
- Market analysis and forecasts from 2023 to 2030

Forecast Segmentation
Market forecasts for 5G NR and LTE-based RAN equipment operating in shared and unlicensed spectrum are provided for each of the following submarkets and their subcategories:

Air Interface Technologies
- LTE
- 5G NR

Cell Types
- Indoor Small Cells
- Outdoor Small Cells

Spectrum Licensing Models
- Coordinated (Licensed) Shared Spectrum
- Unlicensed (License-Exempt) Spectrum

Frequency Bands
Coordinated (Licensed) Shared Spectrum
- 1.8 GHz
- 2.3-2.6 GHz
- 3.4 GHz
- 3.5 GHz CBRS PAL
- 3.7-3.8 GHz
- 3.8-4.2 GHz
- 4.6-4.9 GHz
- 26/28 GHz
- Other Frequencies

Unlicensed (License-Exempt) Spectrum
- 600 MHz TVWS
- 1.9 GHz sXGP
- 2.4 GHz
- 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA
- 5 GHz
- 6 GHz
- 60 GHz
- Other Frequencies

Use Cases
- Mobile Network Densification
- FWA (Fixed Wireless Access)
- Cable Operators & New Entrants
- Neutral Hosts
- Private Cellular Networks
Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses
Vertical Industries

Regional Markets
- North America
- Asia Pacific
- Europe
- Middle East & Africa
- Latin & Central America

Key Questions Answered

The report provides answers to the following key questions:
- How big is the opportunity for 5G NR and LTE networks operating in shared and unlicensed spectrum?
- What trends, drivers and challenges are influencing its growth?
- What will the market size be in 2026, and at what rate will it grow?
- Which submarkets and regions will see the highest percentage of growth?
- What are the existing and candidate shared/unlicensed spectrum bands for the operation of 5G NR and LTE, and what is the status of their adoption worldwide?
- What are the business models, use cases and application scenarios for shared and unlicensed spectrum?
- How are CBRS and other coordinated shared spectrum frameworks accelerating the uptake of private cellular networks for enterprises and vertical industries?
- How does the integration of shared and unlicensed spectrum relieve capacity constraints faced by traditional mobile operators?
- What opportunities exist for cable operators, neutral hosts, niche service providers and other new entrants?
- How is the commercial availability of 5G NR-based shared and unlicensed spectrum network equipment setting the stage for Industry 4.0 and advanced applications?
- Who are the key ecosystem players, and what are their strategies?
- What strategies should 5G NR and LTE equipment suppliers, system integrators, service providers and other stakeholders adopt to remain competitive?

Key Findings

The report has the following key findings:
- SNS Telecom & IT estimates that global investments in LTE and 5G NR-based RAN infrastructure operating in shared and unlicensed spectrum will account for more than $1.4 Billion by the end of 2023. The market is expected to continue its upward trajectory beyond 2023, growing at a CAGR of approximately 27% between 2023 and 2026 to reach nearly $3 Billion in annual spending by 2026.
- Breaking away from traditional practices of spectrum assignment for mobile services that predominantly focused on exclusive-use national licenses, telecommunications regulatory authorities across the globe have either launched or are in the process of releasing innovative frameworks to facilitate the coordinated sharing of licensed spectrum. Examples include but are not limited to:
The three-tiered CBRS spectrum sharing scheme in the United States
Germanys 3.7-3.8 GHz and 28 GHz licenses for 5G campus networks
United Kingdoms shared and local access licensing model
Frances vertical spectrum and sub-letting arrangements
Netherlands geographically restricted mid-band spectrum assignments
Switzerlands 3.4 – 3.5 GHz band for NPNs (Non-Public Networks)
Finlands 2.3 GHz and 26 GHz licenses for local 4G/5G networks
Swedens 3.7 GHz and 26 GHz permits, Norways regulation of local networks in the 3.8-4.2 GHz band
Polands spectrum assignment for local government units and enterprises
Bahrains private 5G network licenses
Japans 4.6-4.9 GHz and 28 GHz local 5G network licenses
South Koreas e-Um 5G allocations in the 4.7 GHz and 28 GHz bands
Taiwans provision of 4.8-4.9 GHz spectrum for private 5G networks
Hong Kongs LWBS (Localized Wireless Broadband System) licenses
Australias apparatus licensing approach
Canadas planned NCL (Non-Competitive Local) licensing framework
Brazils SLP (Private Limited Service) licenses
- Another important development is the growing accessibility of independent cellular networks that operate solely in unlicensed spectrum by leveraging nationally designated license-exempt frequencies such as the GAA tier of the 3.5 GHz CBRS band in the United States and Japans 1.9 GHz sXGP band. In addition, vast swaths of globally and regionally harmonized license-exempt spectrum – most notably, the 600 MHz TVWS, 5 GHz, 6 GHz and 60 GHz bands – are also available worldwide, which can be used for the operation of unlicensed LTE and 5G NR-U (NR in Unlicensed Spectrum) equipment subject to domestic regulations.
- Collectively, ground-breaking spectrum liberalization initiatives are catalyzing the rollout of shared and unlicensed spectrum-enabled LTE and 5G NR networks for a diverse array of use cases – ranging from mobile network densification, FWA in rural communities and MVNO offload to neutral host infrastructure and private cellular networks for enterprises and vertical industries such as agriculture, education, healthcare, manufacturing, military, mining, oil and gas, public sector, retail and hospitality, sports, transportation and utilities.
- In particular, private LTE and 5G networks operating in shared spectrum are becoming an increasingly common theme. Hundreds of local and priority access licenses – predominantly in mid-band spectrum – have been issued in the United States, Germany, United Kingdom, France, Finland, Sweden, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and other pioneering markets to facilitate the operation of purpose-built wireless networks based on 3GPP standards.
- Airbus, ArcelorMittal, Bayer, BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), BMW, Bosch, Dow, EDF, Ferrovial, Groupe ADP, Holmen Iggesund, Hoban Construction, Hsinchu City Fire Department, Inventec, John Deere, KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation), Lufthansa, Mercedes-Benz, Mitsubishi, NAVER, NFL (National Football League), Osaka Gas, Ricoh, SDG&E (San Diego Gas & Electric), Siemens, SVT (Sveriges Television), Tesla, Toyota, Volkswagen, X Shore and the U.S. military are just a few of the many end user organizations investing in shared spectrum-enabled private cellular networks.
- In some national markets, neutral host solutions based on shared spectrum small cells are being employed as a cost-effective means of coverage enhancement inside office spaces, public venues and other indoor environments. One prominent example is social media and technology giant Metas in-building wireless network that uses small cells operating in the GAA tier of CBRS spectrum and MOCN (Multi-Operator Core Network) technology to provide multi-operator cellular coverage at its properties in the United States.
- Although the uptake of 5G NR equipment operating in high-band mmWave (Millimeter Wave) frequencies has been slower than initially anticipated, practical cases of 5G networks based on locally licensed 26/28 GHz spectrum are steadily piling up in multiple national markets – examples range from private 5G installations at HKIA (Hong Kong International Airport), SMC (Samsung Medical Center) and various manufacturing facilities to Japanese cable TV operator-led deployments of 28 GHz local 5G networks.
- The very first deployments of 5G NR-U technology are also beginning to emerge. For example, the SGCC (State Grid Corporation of China) has deployed a private NR-U network – operating in license-exempt Band n46 (5.8 GHz) spectrum – to support video surveillance, mobile inspection robots and other 5G-connected applications at its Lanzhou East and Mogao substations in Chinas Gansu province. In the coming years, with the technologys commercial maturity, we also anticipate seeing NR-U deployments in Band n96 (6 GHz) and Band n263 (60 GHz) for both licensed assisted and standalone modes of operation.
 

 1 Chapter 1: Introduction 37 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project)
 1.1 Executive Summary 37 4RF
 1.2 Topics Covered 40 5G Campus Network Alliance
 1.3 Forecast Segmentation 41 5G-ACIA (5G Alliance for Connected Industries and Automation)
 1.4 Key Questions Answered 43 5GMF (Fifth Generation Mobile Communication Promotion Forum, Japan)
 1.5 Key Findings 44 6Harmonics/6WiLInk
 1.6 Methodology 48 7Layers
 1.7 Target Audience 49 7P (Seven Principles)
 1.8 Companies & Organizations Mentioned 50 ABiT Corporation
 ABP (Associated British Ports)
 2 Chapter 2: An Overview of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Networks 56 Accelleran
 2.1 Spectrum: The Lifeblood of the Wireless Communications Industry 56 AccessParks
 2.1.1 Traditional Exclusive-Use Licensed Spectrum 56 Accuver
 2.1.2 Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum 56 ACMA (Australian Communications and Media Authority)
 2.2 Why Utilize Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum for LTE/5G Networks? 57 ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies)
 2.2.1 Alleviating Capacity Constraints on Mobile Operator Spectrum 57 Affirmed Networks
 2.2.2 New Business Models: Neutral Host, Enterprise & Private Cellular Networks 57 AGCOM (Communications Regulatory Authority, Italy)
 2.2.3 Resurgence of FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) Services 58 AGURRE (Association of Major Users of Operational Radio Networks, France)
 2.3 How Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Differs From Traditional Licensed Frequencies 58 AI-LINK
 2.3.1 Exclusive vs. Shared Use 58 Airbus
 2.3.2 License Fees & Validity 58 Airgain
 2.3.3 Network Buildout & Service Obligations 59 Airport Authority Hong Kong
 2.3.4 Power Limits & Other Restrictions 59 Airspan Networks
 2.4 Common Approaches to the Utilization of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum 59 Airtower Networks
 2.4.1 Coordinated Sharing of Licensed Spectrum 60 Airwavz Solutions
 2.4.1.1 Authorized Sharing of Licensed Spectrum 60 AKOS (Agency for Communication Networks and Services of the Republic of Slovenia)
 2.4.1.2 Sub-Leasing of Unused Mobile Operator Frequencies 60 Akoustis Technologies
 2.4.1.3 Light Licensing 60 albis-elcon
 2.4.1.4 Local Area Licenses 60 Alcadis
 2.4.1.5 Concurrent Shared Access 61 Alef (Alef Edge)
 2.4.2 License-Exempt (Unlicensed) Operation 61 Allen Vanguard Wireless
 2.4.2.1 Dedicated Unlicensed Bands 61 Alliance of Industrial Internet
 2.4.2.2 Opportunistic Unlicensed Access 61 Alpha Wireless
 2.4.3 Database-Assisted Spectrum Coordination 62 Alphabet
 2.4.3.1 Manual Coordination 62 Alsatis Réseaux
 2.4.3.2 Semi-Automated Coordination 62 Amazon
 2.4.3.3 Automated Coordination 62 Ambra Solutions-ECOTEL
 2.4.3.4 DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Access) 62 Amdocs
 2.5 The Value Chain of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Networks 63 American Tower Corporation
 2.5.1 Semiconductor & Enabling Technology Specialists 63 AMIT Wireless
 2.5.2 Terminal OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) 64 ANA (All Nippon Airways)
 2.5.3 5G NR & LTE Infrastructure Suppliers 64 ANACOM (National Communications Authority, Portugal)
 2.5.4 Service Providers 64 Anatel (National Telecommunications Agency, Brazil)
 2.5.4.1 Public Mobile Operators 64 Anritsu
 2.5.4.2 MVNOs (Mobile Virtual Network Operators) 65 ANS (Advanced Network Services)
 2.5.4.3 Fixed-Line Service Providers 65 Antenna Company
 2.5.4.4 Neutral Hosts 65 Anterix
 2.5.4.5 Private 5G/4G Network Operators 66 Apple
 2.5.4.6 Towercos (Tower Companies) 66 aql
 2.5.4.7 Cloud & Edge Platform Providers 66 Aquila (Suzhou Aquila Solutions)
 2.5.5 End Users 67 Aqura Technologies
 2.5.5.1 Consumers 67 ArcelorMittal
 2.5.5.2 Enterprises & Vertical Industries 67 ARCEP (Regulatory Authority for Electronic Communications and Posts, France)
 2.5.6 Other Ecosystem Players 67 Arctic Semiconductor (Formerly SiTune Corporation)
 2.6 Market Drivers 68 Arete M
 2.6.1 Continued Growth of Mobile Data Traffic 68 ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan)
 2.6.2 New Revenue Streams: FWA, IoT & Vertical-Focused Services 69 Artemis Networks
 2.6.3 Private & Neutral Host Network Deployments 70 Askey Computer Corporation
 2.6.4 Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Availability 70 ASOCS
 2.6.5 Lower Cost Network Equipment & Installation 71 ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute)
 2.6.6 Expanding Ecosystem of Compatible Devices 72 ASUS (ASUSTeK Computer)
 2.7 Market Barriers 72 AT&T
 2.7.1 Cell Site & Network Deployment Challenges 72 ATDI
 2.7.2 Restricted Coverage Due to Transmit Power Limits 73 ATEL (Asiatelco Technologies)
 2.7.3 Interference & Congestion Concerns in Unlicensed Bands 73 Athonet
 2.7.4 Resistance From Other Spectrum Users 73 ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
 2.7.5 Competition From Non-3GPP Technologies 73 ATN International
 2.7.6 Economic & Supply Chain-Related Factors 74 AttoCore
 Aviat Networks
 3 Chapter 3: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Technologies 75 AWS (Amazon Web Services)
 3.1 Coordinated Shared Spectrum Technologies 75 Axians
 3.1.1 CBRS (Citizens Broadband Radio Service): Three-Tiered Sharing 75 Azcom Technology
 3.1.1.1 Dynamic Access to the 3.5 GHz Band in the United States 75 Baicells
 3.1.1.2 Tiers of Authorization 76 BAKOM/OFCOM (Federal Office of Communications, Switzerland)
 3.1.1.2.1 Tier 1 – Incumbent Access 76 Ballast Networks
 3.1.1.2.2 Tier 2 – PALs (Priority Access Licenses) 77 BAM Nuttall (Royal BAM Group)
 3.1.1.2.3 Tier 3 – GAA (General Authorized Access) 77 Bayer
 3.1.1.3 CBRS System Architecture & Functional Elements 77 BAYFU (Bayerische Funknetz)
 3.1.2 LSA (Licensed Shared Access): Two-Tiered Sharing 79 BBB (BB Backbone Corporation)
 3.1.2.1 Database-Assisted Sharing of the 2.3 – 2.4 GHz Band in Europe 79 BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation)
 3.1.2.2 Functional Architecture of LSA Systems 80 BBK Electronics
 3.1.2.3 eLSA (Evolved LSA): Frequency-Agnostic Sharing for Local Wireless Networks 81 BearCom
 3.1.3 AFC (Automated Frequency Coordination): License-Exempt Sharing 82 BEC Technologies
 3.1.3.1 SP (Standard Power) Operation in the Unlicensed 6 GHz Band 82 becon
 3.1.3.2 AFC System Implementation Model & Architecture 82 Benetel
 3.1.4 Local Area Licensing of Shared Spectrum 83 Benic Solution Corporation
 3.1.4.1 Germanys 3.7 – 3.8 GHz & 26 GHz Licenses for 5G Campus Networks 83 Betacom
 3.1.4.2 United Kingdoms Shared & Local Access Licensing Model 83 Billion Electric
 3.1.4.3 Frances Vertical Spectrum & Sub-Letting Arrangements 84 BinnenBereik
 3.1.4.4 Netherlands Geographically Restricted Mid-Band Spectrum Assignments 84 BIPT (Belgian Institute for Postal Services and Telecommunications)
 3.1.4.5 Switzerlands 3.4 – 3.5 GHz Band for NPNs (Non-Public Networks) 85 Black Box
 3.1.4.6 Finlands 2.3 GHz & 26 GHz Licenses for Local 4G/5G Networks 85 Blackned
 3.1.4.7 Swedens 3.7 GHz & 26 GHz Local Permits for Mobile Services 85 BLiNQ Networks
 3.1.4.8 Norways Regulation of Local Networks in the 3.8 – 4.2 GHz Band 85 Blu Wireless
 3.1.4.9 Polands Spectrum Assignment for Local Government Units & Enterprises 85 Blue Arcus Technologies
 3.1.4.10 Bahrains 3.8 – 4.2 GHz Private 5G Network Licenses 86 BMW Group
 3.1.4.11 Japans 4.6 – 4.9 GHz & 28 GHz Local 5G Network Licenses 86 BNetzA (Federal Network Agency, Germany)
 3.1.4.12 South Koreas e-Um 5G Allocations in the 4.7 GHz & 28 GHz Bands 86 Boingo Wireless
 3.1.4.13 Taiwans Provision of 4.8 – 4.9 GHz Spectrum for Private 5G Networks 86 Boldyn Networks (Formerly BAI Communications)
 3.1.4.14 Hong Kongs LWBS (Localized Wireless Broadband System) Licenses 87 Boston Dynamics
 3.1.4.15 Australias PTS (Public Telecommunications Service) & Area-Wide Apparatus Licenses 87 Branch Communications
 3.1.4.16 Canadas Planned NCL (Non-Competitive Local) Licensing Framework 87 BT Group
 3.1.4.17 Brazils SLP (Private Limited Service) Licenses 87 BT Media & Broadcast
 3.1.4.18 Local Licensing Schemes in Other National Markets 88 BTG (Dutch Association of Large-Scale ICT & Telecommunications Users)
 3.1.5 Other Coordinated Shared Spectrum Technologies 88 BTI Wireless
 3.2 LTE & 5G NR in Unlicensed Spectrum 89 Bureau Veritas
 3.2.1 LTE-U 89 Burns & McDonnell
 3.2.1.1 Channel Selection 89 BVSystems (Berkeley Varitronics Systems)
 3.2.1.2 CSAT (Carrier Sensing Adaptive Transmission) 89 BYD
 3.2.1.3 Opportunistic On-Off Switching 90 C3Spectra
 3.2.2 LAA (Licensed Assisted Access) 90 CA (Communications Authority of Kenya)
 3.2.2.1 LBT (Listen Before Talk): Category 4 & Category 2 LBT 91 CableFree (Wireless Excellence)
 3.2.2.2 FS3 (Frame Structure Type 3) for Unlicensed Carriers 91 CableLabs
 3.2.2.3 Other LAA Design & Operational Aspects 91 Cal Poly (California Polytechnic State University)
 3.2.3 eLAA (Enhanced LAA) 92 CalChip Connect
 3.2.4 FeLAA (Further Enhanced LAA) 92 Cambium Networks
 3.2.5 MulteFire 92 Cambridge Consultants
 3.2.5.1 Supported Unlicensed Bands 93 CampusGenius
 3.2.5.2 Building on 3GPP-Specified LAA & eLAA Functionality 93 Capgemini Engineering
 3.2.5.3 Modifications for Standalone Operation Without Licensed Anchor 93 Capgemini Invent
 3.2.5.4 Neutral Host Access, Cellular IoT Optimizations & Additional Capabilities 93 CapX Nederland
 3.2.6 Japans sXGP (Shared Extended Global Platform) 94 Casa Systems
 3.2.6.1 License-Exempt Operation of 1.9 GHz Private LTE Networks 94 CCI (Communication Components Inc.)
 3.2.6.2 LBT for Coexistence With PHS & Other sXGP Networks 94 CCN (Cirrus Core Networks)
 3.2.6.3 Possible Use of 1.9 GHz as an Anchor Band for Local 5G Networks 94 CCSA (China Communications Standards Association)
 3.2.7 5G NR-U (NR in Unlicensed Spectrum) 95 CDA (Chicago Department of Aviation)
 3.2.7.1 Modes of Operation 96 Cegeka
 3.2.7.1.1 Anchored NR-U 96 CellAntenna Corporation
 3.2.7.1.2 Standalone NR-U 96 Cellnex Telecom
 3.2.7.2 LBT-Based Channel Access 97 cellXica
 3.2.7.3 Air Interface Refinements for NR-U 97 Celona
 3.2.7.4 Time-Synchronized NR-U & Future Developments 97 Centerline Communications
 CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)
 4 Chapter 4: Business Models, Use Cases & Applications 99 CETC (China Electronics Technology Group Corporation)
 4.1 Business Models & Use Cases 99 Challenge Networks
 4.1.1 Service Provider Networks 99 Charge Enterprises
 4.1.1.1 Mobile Network Densification & Buildouts 99 Charter Communications
 4.1.1.2 FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) Broadband 100 China Mobile Hong Kong
 4.1.1.3 Mobile Networks for Cable Operators & New Entrants 101 China Unicom
 4.1.2 Neutral Host Networks 101 Chinougijutsu
 4.1.2.1 Indoor Spaces 102 Chunghwa Telecom
 4.1.2.2 Large Public Venues 102 CICT – China Information and Communication Technology Group (China Xinke Group)
 4.1.2.3 Transport Hubs & Corridors 103 Cisco Systems
 4.1.2.4 High-Density Urban Settings 103 CITRA (Communication and Information Technology Regulatory Authority, Kuwait)
 4.1.2.5 Remote & Rural Coverage 103 City of Las Vegas
 4.1.3 Private Cellular Networks/NPNs (Non-Public Networks) 104 Citymesh
 4.1.3.1 Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses 104 CK Hutchison
 4.1.3.2 Vertical Industries 105 CNA (Cable Networks Akita)
 4.1.3.2.1 Education 105 COCUS
 4.1.3.2.2 Governments & Municipalities 105 Codium Networks
 4.1.3.2.3 Healthcare 106 Cologne Bonn Airport
 4.1.3.2.4 Manufacturing 106 COMAC (Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China)
 4.1.3.2.5 Military 106 Comba Telecom
 4.1.3.2.6 Mining 107 Comcast Business
 4.1.3.2.7 Oil & Gas 107 CommAgility
 4.1.3.2.8 Retail & Hospitality 108 Commnet Wireless
 4.1.3.2.9 Sports 108 CommScope
 4.1.3.2.10 Transportation 108 Compal Electronics
 4.1.3.2.11 Utilities 109 COMSovereign
 4.1.3.2.12 Other Verticals 109 CONEXIO Corporation
 4.2 Applications 110 CONGIV
 4.2.1 Mobile Broadband 110 Connectivity Wireless Solutions
 4.2.2 Home & Business Broadband 110 Contela
 4.2.3 Voice & Messaging Services 111 Contour Networks
 4.2.4 High-Definition Video Transmission 111 coreNOC
 4.2.5 Telepresence & Video Conferencing 112 Corning
 4.2.6 Multimedia Broadcasting & Multicasting 113 Council Rock
 4.2.7 IoT (Internet of Things) Networking 113 CP Communications
 4.2.8 Wireless Connectivity for Wearables 114 CRA (Communications Regulatory Authority, Qatar)
 4.2.9 Untethered AR/VR/MR (Augmented, Virtual & Mixed Reality) 115 Cradlepoint
 4.2.10 Real-Time Holographic Projections 116 Crown Castle International Corporation
 4.2.11 Tactile Internet & Haptic Feedback 116 CST (Communications, Space & Technology Commission, Saudi Arabia)
 4.2.12 High-Precision Positioning & Tracking 117 CTIA
 4.2.13 Industrial Automation 117 CTL
 4.2.14 Remote Control of Machines 118 CTS (Communication Technology Services)
 4.2.15 Connected Mobile Robotics 119 CTU (Czech Telecommunication Office)
 4.2.16 Unmanned & Autonomous Vehicles 120 Cumucore
 4.2.17 BVLOS (Beyond Visual Line-of-Sight) Operation of Drones 120 DAEL Group
 4.2.18 Data-Driven Analytics & Insights 121 Datang Telecom Technology & Industry Group
 4.2.19 Sensor-Equipped Digital Twins 122 Datatec
 4.2.20 Predictive Maintenance of Equipment 122 dbSpectra
 DeepSig
 5 Chapter 5: Spectrum Availability, Allocation & Usage 124 Dejero Labs
 5.1 Coordinated (Licensed) Shared Spectrum 124 DEKRA
 5.1.1 1.8 GHz (1,710 – 1,880 MHz) 124 Del Conca USA
 5.1.2 2.3 GHz (2,300 – 2,400 MHz) 124 Dell Technologies
 5.1.3 2.6 GHz (2,570 – 2,620 MHz) 125 Deloitte
 5.1.4 3.4 GHz (3,300 – 3,500 MHz) 125 Dense Air
 5.1.5 3.5 GHz CBRS PAL Tier (3,550 – 3,650 MHz) 125 DFW (Dallas Fort Worth) International Airport
 5.1.6 3.7 – 3.8 GHz (3,700 – 3,800 MHz) 126 DGS (Digital Global Systems)
 5.1.7 3.8 – 4.2 GHz (3,800 – 4,200 MHz) 126 DIGI Communications
 5.1.8 4.6 – 4.9 GHz (4,600 – 4,900 MHz) 127 Digi International
 5.1.9 26 GHz (24.25 – 27.5 GHz) 127 Digicert
 5.1.10 28 GHz (26.5 – 29.5 GHz) 128 Digita
 5.1.11 37 GHz (37 – 37.6 GHz) 128 DigitalBridge Group
 5.1.12 Other Bands 128 DISH Network Corporation
 5.2 Unlicensed (License-Exempt) Spectrum 128 DKK (Denki Kogyo)
 5.2.1 600 MHz TVWS & Sub-1 GHz Bands (470 – 790/800/900 MHz) 128 D-Link Corporation
 5.2.2 1.8 GHz DECT Guard Band (1,780 – 1,785 MHz / 1,875 – 1,880 MHz) 129 Doodle Labs
 5.2.3 1.9 GHz sXGP Band (1,880 – 1,920 MHz) 129 DoT (Department of Telecommunications, India)
 5.2.4 2.4 GHz (2,400 – 2,483.5 MHz) 130 Dow
 5.2.5 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA Tier (3,550 – 3,700 MHz) 130 Druid Software
 5.2.6 5 GHz (5,150 – 5,925 MHz) 130 DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance)
 5.2.7 6 GHz (5,925 – 7,125 MHz) 131 Dynabook
 5.2.8 60 GHz (57 – 71 GHz) 131 e-BO Enterprises
 5.2.9 Other Bands 131 EchoStar Corporation
 5.3 North America 132 ECT (Hutchison Ports ECT Rotterdam)
 5.3.1 United States 132 EDF
 5.3.2 Canada 132 EDX Wireless
 5.4 Asia Pacific 133 Edzcom
 5.4.1 Australia 133 EE
 5.4.2 New Zealand 134 EETT (Hellenic Telecommunications and Post Commission)
 5.4.3 China 134 eHills Corporation
 5.4.4 Hong Kong 135 EHIME CATV
 5.4.5 Taiwan 135 EION Wireless
 5.4.6 Japan 136 Element Materials Technology
 5.4.7 South Korea 137 EMS (Electronic Media Services)
 5.4.8 Singapore 137 ENACOM (National Communications Agency, Argentina)
 5.4.9 Malaysia 138 Encore Networks
 5.4.10 Indonesia 138 ENGIE Solutions
 5.4.11 Philippines 139 Ericsson
 5.4.12 Thailand 139 E-Space
 5.4.13 Vietnam 139 ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea)
 5.4.14 Myanmar 139 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
 5.4.15 India 140 EUCAST
 5.4.16 Pakistan 140 EUWENA (European Users of Enterprise Wireless Networks Association)
 5.4.17 Rest of Asia Pacific 141 EWA (Enterprise Wireless Alliance)
 5.5 Europe 141 EXFO
 5.5.1 United Kingdom 141 ExteNet Systems
 5.5.2 Ireland 142 EZcon Network
 5.5.3 France 142 Fairspectrum
 5.5.4 Germany 143 Federated Wireless
 5.5.5 Belgium 144 Fenix Group
 5.5.6 Netherlands 144 Ferrovial
 5.5.7 Switzerland 145 FiberHome Technologies
 5.5.8 Austria 145 Fibocom
 5.5.9 Italy 146 Fibrolan
 5.5.10 Spain 146 FIH Mobile
 5.5.11 Portugal 147 FII (Foxconn Industrial Internet)
 5.5.12 Sweden 147 Firecell
 5.5.13 Norway 148 FIRST RF Corporation
 5.5.14 Denmark 148 Fiskarheden
 5.5.15 Finland 149 FIT (Foxconn Interconnect Technology)
 5.5.16 Iceland 149 Flash Private Mobile Networks
 5.5.17 Estonia 149 floLIVE
 5.5.18 Czech Republic 150 FMBE (FMB Engineering)
 5.5.19 Poland 150 Fortress Solutions
 5.5.20 Ukraine 150 FOX Sports
 5.5.21 Türkiye 151 Foxconn (Hon Hai Technology Group)
 5.5.22 Greece 151 Fraport
 5.5.23 Bulgaria 151 Fraunhofer FOKUS (Institute for Open Communication Systems)
 5.5.24 Romania 152 Fraunhofer HHI (Heinrich Hertz Institute)
 5.5.25 Hungary 152 Fraunhofer IIS (Institute for Integrated Circuits)
 5.5.26 Slovenia 152 Fraunhofer IPT (Institute for Production Technology)
 5.5.27 Croatia 153 FreedomFi
 5.5.28 Serbia 153 freenet Group
 5.5.29 Russia 153 Freshwave Group
 5.5.30 Belarus 153 Frontier Communications
 5.5.31 Rest of Europe 154 FRTek
 5.6 Middle East & Africa 154 FSG (Field Solutions Group)
 5.6.1 Saudi Arabia 154 Fujitsu
 5.6.2 United Arab Emirates 154 Future Technologies Venture
 5.6.3 Qatar 155 G REIGNS
 5.6.4 Oman 155 G+D (Giesecke+Devrient)
 5.6.5 Bahrain 155 GCT Semiconductor
 5.6.6 Kuwait 156 GE (General Electric)
 5.6.7 Jordan 156 Geisinger
 5.6.8 Israel 156 Gemtek Technology
 5.6.9 Egypt 157 Getac Technology Corporation
 5.6.10 Algeria 157 GFO Investments
 5.6.11 Morocco 157 GigSky
 5.6.12 Tunisia 157 Global Telecom
 5.6.13 South Africa 158 Globalgig
 5.6.14 Kenya 158 Gogo Business Aviation
 5.6.15 Mauritius 158 Goodman Telecom Services
 5.6.16 Rest of the Middle East & Africa 158 Google
 5.7 Latin & Central America 159 Granite Telecommunications
 5.7.1 Brazil 159 Grape One
 5.7.2 Mexico 159 Green Packet
 5.7.3 Argentina 160 Greenet (Netherlands)
 5.7.4 Colombia 160 Green-GO Digital (ELC Lighting)
 5.7.5 Chile 160 Groupe ADP
 5.7.6 Peru 161 GS Lab (Great Software Laboratory)
 5.7.7 Dominican Republic 161 Guident
 5.7.8 Guatemala 162 GXC (Formerly GenXComm)
 5.7.9 El Salvador 162 HAKOM (Croatian Regulatory Authority for Network Industries)
 5.7.10 Honduras 162 Hawk Networks (Althea)
 5.7.11 Costa Rica 162 HCL Technologies
 5.7.12 Rest of Latin & Central America 163 Helios Park Hospital Leipzig
 HFR Networks
 6 Chapter 6: Standardization, Regulatory & Collaborative Initiatives 164 Hiroshima Gas
 6.1 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) 164 Hitachi
 6.1.1 Release 13: LAA for Downlink Operation 165 Hitachi Kokusai Electric
 6.1.2 Release 14: eLAA, CBRS & LSA OAM 165 Hitachi Vantara
 6.1.3 Release 15: FeLAA & 5G NR Air Interface 165 HKT
 6.1.4 Release 16: 3GPP Support for 5G NR-U & NPNs 166 HMF (Hytera Mobilfunk)
 6.1.5 Release 17: NPN Refinements & Extension of Operation to 71 GHz 167 Hoban Construction
 6.1.6 Release 18: Further Evolution of 5G NR in Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum 168 Holmen Iggesund
 6.2 5G Campus Network Alliance 168 Horizon Powered
 6.2.1 Supporting the Market Development of 5G Campus Networks in Germany 168 Howard University
 6.3 5GMF (Fifth Generation Mobile Communication Promotion Forum, Japan) 169 HP
 6.3.1 Initiatives Related to Local 5G Networks in Japan 169 HPE (Hewlett Packard Enterprise)
 6.4 AGURRE (Association of Major Users of Operational Radio Networks, France) 169 HSC (Hughes Systique Corporation)
 6.4.1 Spectrum Access, Regulatory Framework & Industrial Ecosystem for Private Mobile Networks 169 HSG (Haslam Sports Group)
 6.5 ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions) 170 Hsinchu City Fire Department
 6.5.1 Deployment & Operational Requirements of 5G-Based NPNs 170 HTC Corporation
 6.5.2 IMSI Assignment & Management for CBRS Networks 170 HTNG (Hospitality Technology Next Generation)
 6.5.3 Additional Shared Spectrum-Related Efforts 171 Huawei
 6.6 BTG (Dutch Association of Large-Scale ICT & Telecommunications Users) 171 Hub One (Groupe ADP)
 6.6.1 KMBG (Dutch Critical Mobile Broadband Users) Expert Group 171 HUBER+SUHNER
 6.7 CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations) 172 Hughes Network Systems
 6.7.1 ECC (Electronic Communications Committee): Operational Guidelines for Spectrum Sharing in Europe 172 Hytera Communications
 6.8 CTIA 172 iBwave Solutions
 6.8.1 Involvement in OnGo Alliances CBRS Product Certification Program 172 Iconec
 6.9 DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance) 173 ICTA (Information and Communication Technologies Authority, Mauritius)
 6.9.1 Advocacy Efforts for Unlicensed & Dynamic Access to Spectrum 173 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
 6.10 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) 173 IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
 6.10.1 RRS (Reconfigurable Radio Systems) Technical Committee: Technical Specifications for LSA & eLSA 174 IFT (Federal Institute of Telecommunications, Mexico)
 6.10.1.1 LSA in the 2.3 GHz (2,300 – 2,400 MHz) Band 174 IIC (Industrial Internet Consortium)
 6.10.1.2 Frequency Agnostic eLSA for Local Wireless Networks 174 IMDA (Infocomm Media Development Authority of Singapore)
 6.10.1.3 Other Work Related to Temporary & Flexible Spectrum Access 174 InfiniG
 6.10.2 BRAN (Broadband Radio Access Networks) Technical Committee: Harmonized Standards for Wireless Access Systems 175 Infinite Electronics
 6.10.2.1 TVWSD (TV White Space Devices) in the 470 – 694 MHz Band 175 Infomark Corporation
 6.10.2.2 RLANs (Radio Local Area Networks) in the 5 GHz & 6 GHz Bands 175 Infosys
 6.10.2.3 Multi-Gigabit Wireless Systems in the 60 GHz (57 – 71 GHz) Band 175 Infovista
 6.11 EUWENA (European Users of Enterprise Wireless Networks Association) 176 Innonet
 6.11.1 Catalyzing the Wider Adoption of 3GPP-Based Private Networks 176 InnoWireless
 6.12 EWA (Enterprise Wireless Alliance) 176 Inseego Corporation
 6.12.1 Supporting the Private Wireless Industry in the United States 176 Insta Group
 6.13 IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) 177 Intel Corporation
 6.13.1 Standards & Protocols for Interworking Between 3GPP & Unlicensed Technologies 177 Intelsat
 6.14 ITU (International Telecommunication Union) 177 Intenna Systems
 6.14.1 International Regulation of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum 177 InterDigital
 6.15 LTE-U Forum (Defunct) 178 INTERLEV
 6.15.1 Technical Specifications for LTE-U in Unlicensed 5 GHz Spectrum 178 Interlink Group Professional Services
 6.16 MFA (MulteFire Alliance) 178 Inventec Corporation
 6.16.1 Uni5G Technology Blueprints for Private 5G Networks 179 IoT4Net
 6.16.2 Network Identifier Program Supporting Private & Neutral Host Networks 179 IPLOOK Networks
 6.16.3 MulteFire Specifications: LTE Operation in Unlicensed Spectrum 179 iPosi
 6.16.4 Certification Program for MulteFire Equipment 179 ISED (Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada)
 6.16.5 MulteFire OSU (Online Sign-Up) System 180 Italtel
 6.17 NGMN (Next-Generation Mobile Networks) Alliance 180 Itron
 6.17.1 Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum-Related Activates 180 ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
 6.18 NSC (National Spectrum Consortium) 181 JACS Solutions
 6.18.1 Increasing Confidence in Spectrum Sharing Approaches 181 JATONTEC (Jaton Technology)
 6.19 ONF (Open Networking Foundation) 181 JBG SMITH Properties
 6.19.1 Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Support in the Aether Private 5G Connected Edge Platform 181 JCI (Japan Communications Inc.)
 6.20 OnGo Alliance 182 JIT (JI Technology)
 6.20.1 Promoting 4G & 5G OnGo Wireless Network Technology 182 JMA Wireless
 6.20.2 Technical Specifications & Guidelines for 4G/5G-Based CBRS Networks 182 John Deere
 6.20.3 Certification Program Supporting Multi-Vendor Interoperability 182 JRC (Japan Radio Company)
 6.21 Small Cell Forum 183 Juniper Networks
 6.21.1 Work Related to License-Exempt & Shared Spectrum Small Cells 183 Kaiser Permanente
 6.22 Spectrum for the Future 183 Kajeet
 6.22.1 Advocating for Wireless Spectrum Sharing in the United States 184 Kansai Electric Power Company
 6.23 WhiteSpace Alliance 184 Kawasaki Heavy Industries
 6.23.1 Promoting the Use of 3GPP, IEEE & IETF Standards for TVWS Spectrum 184 KCCS (Kyocera Communication Systems)
 6.24 WInnForum (Wireless Innovation Forum) 184 Kementerian Kominfo (Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Indonesia)
 6.24.1 CBRS Standards for the Implementation of FCC Rulemaking 185 KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation)
 6.24.2 Specification of Sharing Arrangements in the 6 GHz Band 185 Key Bridge Wireless
 6.24.3 Other Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum-Related Efforts 185 Keysight Technologies
 6.25 XGP (eXtended Global Platform) Forum 186 KHNP (Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power)
 6.25.1 Development & Promotion of the sXGP Unlicensed LTE Service 186 Kisan Telecom
 6.26 Others 186 KLA Laboratories
 6.26.1 National Government Agencies & Regulators 186 Kleos
 6.26.2 Vertical Industry-Specific Associations 186 KMW
 6.26.3 Non-3GPP Technology Alliances 187 Koning & Hartman (Axians/VINCI Energies)
 Konomachi Network
 7 Chapter 7: Case Studies of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Deployments 188 Kontron Transportation
 7.1 ABP (Associated British Ports): Shared Access License-Enabled Private 5G Network for Port of Southampton 188 KORE Wireless
 7.1.1 Spectrum Type 188 KT Corporation
 7.1.2 Integrators & Suppliers 188 Kumagai Gumi
 7.1.3 Deployment Summary 188 Kumu Networks
 7.2 AccessParks: Capitalizing on CBRS Shared Spectrum for Wireless Access in National & State Parks 190 Kyndryl
 7.2.1 Spectrum Type 190 Kyocera Corporation
 7.2.2 Integrators & Suppliers 190 Kyrio
 7.2.3 Deployment Summary 190 Landmark Dividend
 7.3 Airbus: Multi-Campus Private 4G/5G Network for Aircraft Manufacturing Facilities Across Europe 191 Lekha Wireless Solutions
 7.3.1 Spectrum Type 191 Lemko Corporation
 7.3.2 Integrators & Suppliers 191 Lenovo
 7.3.3 Deployment Summary 191 LG Corporation
 7.4 Airport Authority Hong Kong: 28 GHz HKIA Public-Private 5G Infrastructure Project 193 Lime Microsystems
 7.4.1 Spectrum Type 193 Lindsay Broadband
 7.4.2 Integrators & Suppliers 193 Linkem
 7.4.3 Deployment Summary 193 Linx Technologies
 7.5 ANA (All Nippon Airways): Local 5G-Powered Digital Transformation of Aviation Training 195 LIONS Technology
 7.5.1 Spectrum Type 195 Logan Aluminum
 7.5.2 Integrators & Suppliers 195 Logicalis
 7.5.3 Deployment Summary 195 LS telcom
 7.6 ArcelorMittal: 5G Steel Project for Industrial Digitization & Automation 196 LTE-U Forum
 7.6.1 Spectrum Type 196 Lufthansa Technik
 7.6.2 Integrators & Suppliers 196 M/C Partners
 7.6.3 Deployment Summary 196 m3connect
 7.7 AT&T: Tapping Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum for FWA & Private Cellular Networks 198 MarchNet
 7.7.1 Spectrum Type 198 Marubun Corporation
 7.7.2 Integrators & Suppliers 198 MatSing
 7.7.3 Deployment Summary 198 Maven Wireless
 7.8 BAM Nuttall: Accelerating Innovation at Construction Sites With Private 5G Networks 201 Mavenir
 7.8.1 Spectrum Type 201 MBIE (Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, New Zealand)
 7.8.2 Integrators & Suppliers 201 MCMC (Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission)
 7.8.3 Deployment Summary 201 MCS Benelux
 7.9 BBB (BB Backbone Corporation): 1.9 GHz sXGP Private LTE Network Service 203 Media Broadcast
 7.9.1 Spectrum Type 203 Mediacom Communications
 7.9.2 Integrators & Suppliers 203 Memorial Health System
 7.9.3 Deployment Summary 203 Mercedes-Benz Group
 7.10 BMW Group: 5G NR-Based CBRS Network for Autonomous Logistics in Spartanburg Plant 205 Mercury Broadband
 7.10.1 Spectrum Type 205 Meta
 7.10.2 Integrators & Suppliers 205 Metaswitch Networks
 7.10.3 Deployment Summary 205 MFA (MulteFire Alliance)
 7.11 BT Media & Broadcast: Portable Private 5G Networks for Live Sports Broadcasting 207 MIC (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Japan)
 7.11.1 Spectrum Type 207 MiCOM Labs
 7.11.2 Integrators & Suppliers 207 Microlab
 7.11.3 Deployment Summary 207 Microsoft Corporation
 7.12 BYD SkyRail: Unlicensed 5 GHz Wireless System for Railway Communications 209 Midco (Midcontinent Communications)
 7.12.1 Spectrum Type 209 MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, China)
 7.12.2 Integrators & Suppliers 209 Miliwave
 7.12.3 Deployment Summary 209 MitraStar Technology
 7.13 Cal Poly (California Polytechnic State University): Converged Public-Private 5G Network 210 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
 7.13.1 Spectrum Type 210 Mitsubishi Logisnext
 7.13.2 Integrators & Suppliers 210 MKI (Mitsui Knowledge Industry)
 7.13.3 Deployment Summary 210 Mobile Mark
 7.14 CDA (Chicago Department of Aviation): Private Network for Chicago OHare International Airport 211 MobileComm Professionals
 7.14.1 Spectrum Type 211 Monogoto
 7.14.2 Integrators & Suppliers 211 Mori Building Company
 7.14.3 Deployment Summary 211 MosoLabs
 7.15 Charter Communications: Transforming MVNO & FWA Service Offerings With CBRS Shared Spectrum 212 Motorola Mobility
 7.15.1 Spectrum Type 212 Motorola Solutions
 7.15.2 Integrators & Suppliers 212 MRK Media
 7.15.3 Deployment Summary 212 MRT Technology (Suzhou)
 7.16 Chunghwa Telecom: Utilizing Unlicensed 5 GHz Spectrum to Enhance Mobile Broadband Experience 214 MSB (M S Benbow & Associates)
 7.16.1 Spectrum Type 214 MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT, South Korea)
 7.16.2 Integrators & Suppliers 214 MTI (Microelectronics Technology, Inc.)
 7.16.3 Deployment Summary 214 MTI Wireless Edge
 7.17 City of Las Vegas: Municipal Private Wireless Network for Businesses, Government & Educational Institutions 215 MTS (Mobile TeleSystems)
 7.17.1 Spectrum Type 215 MUGLER
 7.17.2 Integrators & Suppliers 215 Multi-Tech Systems
 7.17.3 Deployment Summary 215 MVI Group
 7.18 Cologne Bonn Airport: Revolutionizing Internal Operations With Private 5G Campus Network 217 NARI Technology
 7.18.1 Spectrum Type 217 NAVER Cloud
 7.18.2 Integrators & Suppliers 217 NBTC (National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission, Thailand)
 7.18.3 Deployment Summary 217 NCC (National Communications Commission, Taiwan)
 7.19 COMAC (Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China): 5G-Connected Intelligent Aircraft Manufacturing Factories 219 NEC Corporation
 7.19.1 Spectrum Type 219 Nemko
 7.19.2 Integrators & Suppliers 219 NetCity (GEOS Telecom/GEOS Holding)
 7.19.3 Deployment Summary 219 Netgear
 7.20 Del Conca USA: Automating & Streamlining Production Processes With Private Wireless Network 221 Netmore Group
 7.20.1 Spectrum Type 221 Netvision Telecom
 7.20.2 Integrators & Suppliers 221 Neutral Wireless
 7.20.3 Deployment Summary 221 Neutroon Technologies
 7.21 DFW (Dallas Fort Worth) International Airport: Private 5G Network for IoT & Digitization Use Cases 223 NewEdge Signal Solutions
 7.21.1 Spectrum Type 223 Nextivity
 7.21.2 Integrators & Suppliers 223 NextLight
 7.21.3 Deployment Summary 223 NFL (National Football League)
 7.22 Dow: Modernizing Chemical Plant Maintenance With Private Cellular Networks 225 NGMN (Next-Generation Mobile Networks) Alliance
 7.22.1 Spectrum Type 225 Nkom (Norwegian Communications Authority)
 7.22.2 Integrators & Suppliers 225 Node-H
 7.22.3 Deployment Summary 225 Nokia
 7.23 EDF: Private Mobile Networks for Enhanced Connectivity at Nuclear Power Plants & Wind Farms 227 Norfolk Southern Corporation
 7.23.1 Spectrum Type 227 Norsat International
 7.23.2 Integrators & Suppliers 227 Nova Labs (Helium)
 7.23.3 Deployment Summary 227 NOVEC
 7.24 EHIME CATV: Gigabit-Grade FWA Service Using 28 GHz Local 5G Network 229 NRB (Network Research Belgium)
 7.24.1 Spectrum Type 229 NS Solutions Corporation
 7.24.2 Integrators & Suppliers 229 NSC (National Spectrum Consortium)
 7.24.3 Deployment Summary 229 Nsight
 7.25 Ferrovial: Standalone Private 5G Network for Silvertown Tunnel Project 230 NTC (National Telecommunications Commission, Philippines)
 7.25.1 Spectrum Type 230 NTT East
 7.25.2 Integrators & Suppliers 230 NTT Group
 7.25.3 Deployment Summary 230 NTT West
 7.26 Fiskarheden: Local 3.7 GHz License-Based Private 5G Network for Transtrand Sawmill 232 NuRAN Wireless
 7.26.1 Spectrum Type 232 Nutaq Innovation
 7.26.2 Integrators & Suppliers 232 NYPL (New York Public Library)
 7.26.3 Deployment Summary 232 Ocado
 7.27 FOX Sports: Private Wireless Network for Live Broadcast Operations 233 Oceus Networks
 7.27.1 Spectrum Type 233 Octasic
 7.27.2 Integrators & Suppliers 233 OFCA (Office of the Communications Authority, Hong Kong)
 7.27.3 Deployment Summary 233 Ofcom (Office of Communications, United Kingdom)
 7.28 Fraport: Private 5G Campus Network for Future-Oriented Operations at Frankfurt Airport 234 OhioTT (Ohio Transparent Telecom)
 7.28.1 Spectrum Type 234 OneLayer
 7.28.2 Integrators & Suppliers 234 ONF (Open Networking Foundation)
 7.28.3 Deployment Summary 234 OnGo Alliance
 7.29 Frontier Communications: Leveraging CBRS Shared Spectrum for Rural Broadband 236 Ontix
 7.29.1 Spectrum Type 236 OPTAGE
 7.29.2 Integrators & Suppliers 236 Opticoms
 7.29.3 Deployment Summary 236 Oracle Communications
 7.30 Fujitsu: Japans First 5G Network Installation Based on 28 GHz Local 5G Spectrum 237 O-RAN Alliance
 7.30.1 Spectrum Type 237 Orange
 7.30.2 Integrators & Suppliers 237 Osaka Gas
 7.30.3 Deployment Summary 237 Palo Alto Networks
 7.31 Gale South Beach Hotel: CBRS Network for Guest Engagement & Hotel Operations 239 Panasonic Connect
 7.31.1 Spectrum Type 239 Panorama Antennas
 7.31.2 Integrators & Suppliers 239 Parallel Wireless
 7.31.3 Deployment Summary 239 Parsec Technologies
 7.32 Geisinger (Kaiser Permanente): Private LTE Network for Telemedicine in Rural Pennsylvania 240 Pavlov Media
 7.32.1 Spectrum Type 240 PBE Axell (Formerly Axell Wireless)
 7.32.2 Integrators & Suppliers 240 PCS Technologies
 7.32.3 Deployment Summary 240 PCTEL
 7.33 Gogo Business Aviation: Leveraging Unlicensed 2.4 GHz spectrum for 5G-Based A2G (Air-to-Ground) Connectivity 241 PCTEST Lab (PCTEST Engineering Laboratory)
 7.33.1 Spectrum Type 241 Pegatron Corporation
 7.33.2 Integrators & Suppliers 241 Pente Networks
 7.33.3 Deployment Summary 241 Pierson Wireless
 7.34 Groupe ADP: 3GPP-Based Private Mobile Network for Paris Airports 243 Pivot Technology Services
 7.34.1 Spectrum Type 243 Pivotal Commware
 7.34.2 Integrators & Suppliers 243 Pivotel Group
 7.34.3 Deployment Summary 243 Polaris Networks
 7.35 Guident: Private 5G Testbed for Autonomous Vehicles & Smart City Use Cases 245 Pollen Mobile
 7.35.1 Spectrum Type 245 Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
 7.35.2 Integrators & Suppliers 245 Port of Tyne
 7.35.3 Deployment Summary 245 Potevio
 7.36 Helios Park Hospital: Enhancing Medical System Efficiency With Standalone 5G Campus Network 246 Prescriptive Data
 7.36.1 Spectrum Type 246 PRF (Purdue Research Foundation)
 7.36.2 Integrators & Suppliers 246 Pronto
 7.36.3 Deployment Summary 246 Proptivity
 7.37 Hiroshima Gas: Local 5G-Powered Safety Operations at Hatsukaichi LNG Terminal 247 PTA (Pakistan Telecommunication Authority)
 7.37.1 Spectrum Type 247 PTD (Posts and Telecommunications Department, Myanmar)
 7.37.2 Integrators & Suppliers 247 PTS (Post and Telecom Authority, Sweden)
 7.37.3 Deployment Summary 247 Purdue University
 7.38 Hoban Construction: 4.7 GHz Private 5G Network for Apartment Complex Worksite 248 QCT (Quanta Cloud Technology)
 7.38.1 Spectrum Type 248 QuadGen Wireless Solutions
 7.38.2 Integrators & Suppliers 248 Qualcomm
 7.38.3 Deployment Summary 248 Quantum Wireless
 7.39 Howard University: Delivering Secure & Enhanced Campus Connectivity With CBRS Network 250 QuayChain
 7.39.1 Spectrum Type 250 Qucell Networks
 7.39.2 Integrators & Suppliers 250 Quectel Wireless Solutions
 7.39.3 Deployment Summary 250 Qulsar
 7.40 HSG (Haslam Sports Group): 3GPP-Based Private Wireless Infrastructure for Stadium Operations 251 Radisys
 7.40.1 Spectrum Type 251 RADTONICS
 7.40.2 Integrators & Suppliers 251 Rakuten Symphony
 7.40.3 Deployment Summary 251 Rampart Communications
 7.41 Hsinchu City Fire Department: Satellite-Backhauled Private 5G Network for PPDR Communications 252 Ranger Systems
 7.41.1 Spectrum Type 252 Ranplan Wireless
 7.41.2 Integrators & Suppliers 252 RATEL (Regulatory Agency for Electronic Communications and Postal Services, Serbia)
 7.41.3 Deployment Summary 252 Raycap
 7.42 Inventec Corporation: Standalone Private 5G Network for Taoyuan Guishan Plant 253 RCS Telecommunications
 7.42.1 Spectrum Type 253 RED Technologies
 7.42.2 Integrators & Suppliers 253 Redline Communications
 7.42.3 Deployment Summary 253 Reliance Industries
 7.43 JBG SMITH Properties: National Landing Private 5G Infrastructure Platform 254 RF Connect
 7.43.1 Spectrum Type 254 RF Industries
 7.43.2 Integrators & Suppliers 254 RFS (Radio Frequency Systems)
 7.43.3 Deployment Summary 254 Ricoh
 7.44 John Deere: Private Cellular Connectivity for Manufacturing Processes 255 Rivada Networks
 7.44.1 Spectrum Type 255 RKTPL (RK Telesystem Private Limited)
 7.44.2 Integrators & Suppliers 255 Robert Bosch
 7.44.3 Deployment Summary 255 ROBUR Industry Service Group
 7.45 Kansai Electric Power: Enhancing Power Station & Wind Farm Maintenance Using Local 5G Networks 257 Rohde & Schwarz
 7.45.1 Spectrum Type 257 RSConnect
 7.45.2 Integrators & Suppliers 257 Rudin Management Company
 7.45.3 Deployment Summary 257 RugGear
 7.46 Kawasaki Heavy Industries: Connecting Smart Factory Robotics With Local 5G 258 RuggON Corporation
 7.46.1 Spectrum Type 258 Saankhya Labs
 7.46.2 Integrators & Suppliers 258 SAC Wireless
 7.46.3 Deployment Summary 258 Samsung
 7.47 KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation): Private 5G Networks for Substation Management 259 Sanjole
 7.47.1 Spectrum Type 259 SBA Communications
 7.47.2 Integrators & Suppliers 259 SDG&E (San Diego Gas & Electric)
 7.47.3 Deployment Summary 259 Select Spectrum
 7.48 Kumagai Gumi: Unleashing the Potential of Unmanned Construction Using Local 5G Networks 260 Sempra
 7.48.1 Spectrum Type 260 Semtech Corporation
 7.48.2 Integrators & Suppliers 260 Seowon Intech
 7.48.3 Deployment Summary 260 Sequans Communications
 7.49 Logan Aluminum: Enhancing Plant Safety & Efficiency Using Private Broadband Network 262 Sercomm Corporation
 7.49.1 Spectrum Type 262 SES
 7.49.2 Integrators & Suppliers 262 SETUP Protokolltester
 7.49.3 Deployment Summary 262 SGCC (State Grid Corporation of China)
 7.50 Lufthansa Technik: Industrial-Grade 5G Campus Network for Hamburg Engine Shops 263 SGP (Société du Grand Paris)
 7.50.1 Spectrum Type 263 SGS
 7.50.2 Integrators & Suppliers 263 Shared Access
 7.50.3 Deployment Summary 263 Sharp Corporation
 7.51 Mediacom Communications: Harnessing CBRS Spectrum for FWA Services in Rural America 266 Siemens
 7.51.1 Spectrum Type 266 Sierra Wireless
 7.51.2 Integrators & Suppliers 266 SIGET (General Superintendency of Electricity and Telecommunications, El Salvador)
 7.51.3 Deployment Summary 266 Sigma Wireless
 7.52 Memorial Health System: Temporary Private Cellular Network to Support COVID-19 Response Efforts 267 Silicom Connectivity Solutions
 7.52.1 Spectrum Type 267 Sinclair Technologies
 7.52.2 Integrators & Suppliers 267 SIP (Sidewalk Infrastructure Partners)
 7.52.3 Deployment Summary 267 SIPG (Shanghai International Port Group)
 7.53 Mercedes-Benz Group: Worlds First 5G Campus Network for Automotive Production 268 siticom
 7.53.1 Spectrum Type 268 Sivers Semiconductors
 7.53.2 Integrators & Suppliers 268 Skyworks Solutions
 7.53.3 Deployment Summary 268 Small Cell Forum
 7.54 Mercury Broadband: CBRS Network for Broadband Expansion in the Midwestern United States 270 Smart Mobile Labs
 7.54.1 Spectrum Type 270 SmarTone
 7.54.2 Integrators & Suppliers 270 SMAWave (Shanghai SMAWave Technology)
 7.54.3 Deployment Summary 270 SMC (Samsung Medical Center)
 7.55 Meta: CBRS-Powered Neutral Host Wireless Network for Indoor Coverage in Office Buildings 271 Socionext
 7.55.1 Spectrum Type 271 SOLiD
 7.55.2 Integrators & Suppliers 271 Sonim Technologies
 7.55.3 Deployment Summary 271 Sony Group Corporation
 7.56 Midco (Midcontinent Communications): Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum for Rural Broadband Connectivity 272 Southern Company
 7.56.1 Spectrum Type 272 Southern Linc
 7.56.2 Integrators & Suppliers 272 Spectrum Effect
 7.56.3 Deployment Summary 272 Spectrum for the Future
 7.57 Mitsubishi Electric: Local 5G-Based Industrial Wireless System for Factory Automation 274 SPIE Group
 7.57.1 Spectrum Type 274 Spirent Communications
 7.57.2 Integrators & Suppliers 274 Sporton International
 7.57.3 Deployment Summary 274 SQUAN
 7.58 Mori Building Company: 5G Core-Enabled 1.9 GHz sXGP Network for Building Management & Tenant Services 276 SSA Marine (Carrix)
 7.58.1 Spectrum Type 276 SSC (Shared Spectrum Company)
 7.58.2 Integrators & Suppliers 276 St. Vrain Valley School District
 7.58.3 Deployment Summary 276 Star Solutions
 7.59 MTS (Mobile TeleSystems): Delivering Gigabit-Grade LTE Services Using LAA Technology 277 STEP CG
 7.59.1 Spectrum Type 277 Streamwide
 7.59.2 Integrators & Suppliers 277 Subtel (Undersecretariat of Telecommunications, Chile)
 7.59.3 Deployment Summary 277 Sumitomo Corporation
 7.60 NetCity (GEOS Telecom): Unlicensed Sub-1 GHz LTE Network for AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure) 278 Sunwave Communications
 7.60.1 Spectrum Type 278 Supermicro (Super Micro Computer)
 7.60.2 Integrators & Suppliers 278 SureSite Consulting Group
 7.60.3 Deployment Summary 278 SUTEL (Superintendency of Telecommunications, Costa Rica)
 7.61 NFL (National Football League): Private Wireless Technology for Coach-to-Coach & Sideline Communications 280 SVT (Sveriges Television)
 7.61.1 Spectrum Type 280 Syniverse
 7.61.2 Integrators & Suppliers 280 System Innovation Group
 7.61.3 Deployment Summary 280 T&W (Shenzhen Gongjin Electronics)
 7.62 Norfolk Southern Corporation: LTE-Based CBRS Network for Rail Yard Staff 282 t3 Broadband
 7.62.1 Spectrum Type 282 Tait Communications
 7.62.2 Integrators & Suppliers 282 Tango Networks
 7.62.3 Deployment Summary 282 Taoglas
 7.63 NYPL (New York Public Library): Shrinking the Digital Divide With CBRS Technology 283 Tarana Wireless
 7.63.1 Spectrum Type 283 TDRA (Telecommunications and Digital Government Regulatory Authority, UAE)
 7.63.2 Integrators & Suppliers 283 TE Connectivity
 7.63.3 Deployment Summary 283 Teal Communications
 7.64 Ocado: 4G-Based Unlicensed 5 GHz Wireless Control System for Warehouse Automation 284 Techbros
 7.64.1 Spectrum Type 284 Tecore Networks
 7.64.2 Integrators & Suppliers 284 Tejas Networks
 7.64.3 Deployment Summary 284 Tele2
 7.65 OhioTT (Ohio Transparent Telecom): CBRS-Enabled Fixed Wireless Network for Rural Ohio 286 Telefónica Germany
 7.65.1 Spectrum Type 286 Telefónica Group
 7.65.2 Integrators & Suppliers 286 Telent
 7.65.3 Deployment Summary 286 Telet Research
 7.66 Port Authority of New York and New Jersey: Private LTE Network for Newark Liberty International Airport 287 Televate
 7.66.1 Spectrum Type 287 Telewave
 7.66.2 Integrators & Suppliers 287 TeleWorld Solutions
 7.66.3 Deployment Summary 287 Telit Cinterion
 7.67 Port of Rotterdam: Locally Licensed 3.7 GHz LTE Network for Business-Critical Applications 288 Telrad Networks
 7.67.1 Spectrum Type 288 Telsasoft
 7.67.2 Integrators & Suppliers 288 Telstra Purple
 7.67.3 Deployment Summary 288 Teltech Group
 7.68 Port of Tyne: Advancing Smart Port Transformation With Private 5G Network 290 TeraGo
 7.68.1 Spectrum Type 290 Tesla
 7.68.2 Integrators & Suppliers 290 Tessares
 7.68.3 Deployment Summary 290 TESSCO Technologies
 7.69 Pronto: Private Cellular-Enabled Driverless Trucks for Autonomous Haulage in Remote Mining Sites 292 Thales
 7.69.1 Spectrum Type 292 The Sound Hotel
 7.69.2 Integrators & Suppliers 292 ThinkRF
 7.69.3 Deployment Summary 292 Three Group Solutions
 7.70 Purdue University: Private Wireless Networks for Smart City & Aviation Applications 293 Tibco Telecoms
 7.70.1 Spectrum Type 293 Tideworks Technology
 7.70.2 Integrators & Suppliers 293 Tillman Global Holdings
 7.70.3 Deployment Summary 293 Tilson
 7.71 RCI (Rural Cloud Initiative): Building the Farm of the Future With CBRS Shared Spectrum 295 TIL-TEK Antennae
 7.71.1 Spectrum Type 295 TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile)
 7.71.2 Integrators & Suppliers 295 Titan ICT
 7.71.3 Deployment Summary 295 Titan.ium Platform
 7.72 Ricoh: Accelerating Digital Transformation of Production Operations With Local 5G Networks 296 TLC Solutions
 7.72.1 Spectrum Type 296 T-Mobile US
 7.72.2 Integrators & Suppliers 296 Tokyo Metropolitan University
 7.72.3 Deployment Summary 296 TotalEnergies
 7.73 Robert Bosch: Automating & Digitizing Manufacturing Facilities With Private 5G Networks 297 TOUA (Tohono Oodham Utility Authority)
 7.73.1 Spectrum Type 297 Toyota Motor Corporation
 7.73.2 Integrators & Suppliers 297 TRA (Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, Bahrain)
 7.73.3 Deployment Summary 297 Traficom (Transport and Communications Agency, Finland)
 7.74 Rudin Management Company: Neutral Host CBRS Network for Multi-Tenant Office Building 299 TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)
 7.74.1 Spectrum Type 299 TRC (Telecommunications Regulatory Commission, Jordan)
 7.74.2 Integrators & Suppliers 299 Trilogy Networks
 7.74.3 Deployment Summary 299 TRIOPT
 7.75 SDG&E (San Diego Gas & Electric): pLTE (Private LTE) Network for Advanced Safety & Protection Technologies 300 TSDSI (Telecommunications Standards Development Society, India)
 7.75.1 Spectrum Type 300 T-Systems International
 7.75.2 Integrators & Suppliers 300 TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea)
 7.75.3 Deployment Summary 300 TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan)
 7.76 SGCC (State Grid Corporation of China): 5.8 GHz Private NR-U Network for Lanzhou East & Mogao Substations 302 TÜV SÜD
 7.76.1 Spectrum Type 302 U.S. DOD (Department of Defense)
 7.76.2 Integrators & Suppliers 302 U.S. FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
 7.76.3 Deployment Summary 302 U.S. Marine Corps
 7.77 SGP (Société du Grand Paris): 2.6 GHz Private LTE Network for Grand Paris Express Rapid Transit System 303 Ubicquia
 7.77.1 Spectrum Type 303 Ubiik
 7.77.2 Integrators & Suppliers 303 UCSB (University of California, Santa Barbara)
 7.77.3 Deployment Summary 303 UCtel
 7.78 Siemens: Independently Developed Private 5G Infrastructure for Industry 4.0 Applications 305 UET (United Electronic Technology)
 7.78.1 Spectrum Type 305 UIPA (Utah Inland Port Authority)
 7.78.2 Integrators & Suppliers 305 UKE (Office of Electronic Communications, Poland)
 7.78.3 Deployment Summary 305 UL
 7.79 SmarTone: Effectively Managing Traffic Surges With Strategically Located LAA Small Cells 307 University of Strathclyde
 7.79.1 Spectrum Type 307 Unizyx Holding Corporation
 7.79.2 Integrators & Suppliers 307 URSYS
 7.79.3 Deployment Summary 307 UST
 7.80 SMC (Samsung Medical Center): On-Premise Private 5G Network for Medical Education 308 V&M (Venus & Mercury) Telecom
 7.80.1 Spectrum Type 308 Valid8
 7.80.2 Integrators & Suppliers 308 VALL Technologies
 7.80.3 Deployment Summary 308 Vapor IO
 7.81 Southern Linc: Expanding LTE Network Capacity for Utility Communications With CBRS Shared Spectrum 309 Ventev
 7.81.1 Spectrum Type 309 Verizon Business
 7.81.2 Integrators & Suppliers 309 Verizon Communications
 7.81.3 Deployment Summary 309 Vertical Bridge
 7.82 SSA Marine (Carrix): 3GPP-Based Private Wireless Network for Port of Seattles Terminal 5 311 Verveba Telecom
 7.82.1 Spectrum Type 311 Viasat
 7.82.2 Integrators & Suppliers 311 VIAVI Solutions
 7.82.3 Deployment Summary 311 VINCI Energies
 7.83 St. Vrain Valley School District: Private LTE Network for Connecting Low-Income Students 312 Vislink Technologies
 7.83.1 Spectrum Type 312 VITES
 7.83.2 Integrators & Suppliers 312 VMware
 7.83.3 Deployment Summary 312 VNC (Virtual NetCom)
 7.84 Teltech Group: Private 4G/5G-Enabled Warehouse Automation & Industry 4.0 Capabilities 313 Vocus
 7.84.1 Spectrum Type 313 Vodacom Group
 7.84.2 Integrators & Suppliers 313 Vodafone Germany
 7.84.3 Deployment Summary 313 Vodafone Group
 7.85 The Sound Hotel: Enhancing Guest Experience & Internal Operations With Private Wireless Technology 314 Volkswagen Group
 7.85.1 Spectrum Type 314 VVDN Technologies
 7.85.2 Integrators & Suppliers 314 Watch Communications
 7.85.3 Deployment Summary 314 Wave-In Communication
 7.86 Tokyo Metropolitan University: L5G (Local 5G) Project in Support of "Future Tokyo" Strategy 316 Wavelabs
 7.86.1 Spectrum Type 316 Wavesight
 7.86.2 Integrators & Suppliers 316 WBA (Wireless Broadband Alliance)
 7.86.3 Deployment Summary 316 Weaccess Group
 7.87 TotalEnergies: 3GPP-Based PMR (Professional Mobile Radio) Network for Critical Communications 317 Westell Technologies
 7.87.1 Spectrum Type 317 WhiteSpace Alliance
 7.87.2 Integrators & Suppliers 317 Widelity
 7.87.3 Deployment Summary 317 Wi-Fi Alliance
 7.88 TOUA (Tohono Oodham Utility Authority): Bringing Advanced Broadband Connectivity to Tribal Residents 318 WiFrost
 7.88.1 Spectrum Type 318 Wilson Electronics
 7.88.2 Integrators & Suppliers 318 Wilus
 7.88.3 Deployment Summary 318 WIN Connectivity (Wireless Information Networks)
 7.89 Toyota Motor Corporation: Private LTE & Local 5G Networks for Industrial Use Cases 319 Winncom Technologies
 7.89.1 Spectrum Type 319 WInnForum (Wireless Innovation Forum)
 7.89.2 Integrators & Suppliers 319 WISPA (Wireless Internet Service Providers Association)
 7.89.3 Deployment Summary 319 WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation)
 7.90 U.S. Marine Corps: Private 5G for Smart Warehousing & Expeditionary Base Operations 321 WorldCell Solutions
 7.90.1 Spectrum Type 321 Wytec International
 7.90.2 Integrators & Suppliers 321 X Shore
 7.90.3 Deployment Summary 321 Xantaro
 7.91 UCSB (University of California, Santa Barbara): Outdoor CBRS Network for On-Campus IoT Services 323 XCOM Labs
 7.91.1 Spectrum Type 323 XGP (eXtended Global Platform) Forum
 7.91.2 Integrators & Suppliers 323 Yumeshima Container Terminal
 7.91.3 Deployment Summary 323 Zebra Technologies
 7.92 UIPA (Utah Inland Port Authority): CBRS-Enabled ICN (Intelligent Crossroads Network) for Utahs Supply Chain 324 Zinwave
 7.92.1 Spectrum Type 324 Zmtel (Shanghai Zhongmi Communication Technology)
 7.92.2 Integrators & Suppliers 324 ZTE
 7.92.3 Deployment Summary 324 Zyxel
 7.93 URSYS: Bringing Cellular Connectivity to Rural Areas and Outlying Regions With Unlicensed Spectrum 325
 7.93.1 Spectrum Type 325
 7.93.2 Integrators & Suppliers 325
 7.93.3 Deployment Summary 325
 7.94 Verizon Communications: Exploiting 3.5 GHz CBRS & 5 GHz Spectrum to Address Capacity Demands 326
 7.94.1 Spectrum Type 326
 7.94.2 Integrators & Suppliers 326
 7.94.3 Deployment Summary 326
 7.95 Vodacom Group: Employing Unlicensed 5 GHz Spectrum to Improve LTE Network Capacity & Performance 329
 7.95.1 Spectrum Type 329
 7.95.2 Integrators & Suppliers 329
 7.95.3 Deployment Summary 329
 7.96 Wells Fargo Center: Improving Critical Operations & Fan Experience With Private 4G/5G Connectivity 330
 7.96.1 Spectrum Type 330
 7.96.2 Integrators & Suppliers 330
 7.96.3 Deployment Summary 330
 7.97 WiFrost: 4G/5G-Based Unlicensed TVWS System for FWA & Precision Agriculture 331
 7.97.1 Spectrum Type 331
 7.97.2 Integrators & Suppliers 331
 7.97.3 Deployment Summary 331
 7.98 X Shore: Empowering Electric Boat Manufacturing With Private 5G Network 332
 7.98.1 Spectrum Type 332
 7.98.2 Integrators & Suppliers 332
 7.98.3 Deployment Summary 332
 7.99 Yangshan Port: Unlicensed 5.8 GHz Wireless Network for Automated Container Terminal Operations 333
 7.99.1 Spectrum Type 333
 7.99.2 Integrators & Suppliers 333
 7.99.3 Deployment Summary 333
 7.100 Yumeshima Container Terminal: Local 5G Network for Digital Transformation of Port Facilities 335
 7.100.1 Spectrum Type 335
 7.100.2 Integrators & Suppliers 335
 7.100.3 Deployment Summary 335
 
 8 Chapter 8: Market Sizing & Forecasts 336
 8.1 Global Outlook for Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Networks 336
 8.2 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology 337
 8.2.1 LTE 338
 8.2.2 5G NR 339
 8.3 Segmentation by Cell Type 340
 8.3.1 Indoor Small Cells 341
 8.3.2 Outdoor Small Cells 342
 8.4 Segmentation by Spectrum Licensing Model 343
 8.4.1 Coordinated (Licensed) Shared Spectrum 344
 8.4.2 Unlicensed (License-Exempt) Spectrum 345
 8.5 Segmentation by Frequency Band 346
 8.5.1 Coordinated Shared Spectrum 346
 8.5.1.1 1.8 GHz 347
 8.5.1.2 2.3 – 2.6 GHz 348
 8.5.1.3 3.4 GHz 349
 8.5.1.4 3.5 GHz CBRS PAL 350
 8.5.1.5 3.7-3.8 GHz 351
 8.5.1.6 3.8-4.2 GHz 352
 8.5.1.7 4.6-4.9 GHz 353
 8.5.1.8 26/28 GHz 354
 8.5.1.9 Other Frequencies 355
 8.5.2 Unlicensed Spectrum 356
 8.5.2.1 600 MHz TVWS 357
 8.5.2.2 1.9 GHz sXGP Band 358
 8.5.2.3 2.4 GHz 359
 8.5.2.4 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA 360
 8.5.2.5 5 GHz 361
 8.5.2.6 6 GHz 362
 8.5.2.7 60 GHz 363
 8.5.2.8 Other Frequencies 364
 8.6 Segmentation by Use Case 365
 8.6.1 Mobile Network Densification 366
 8.6.2 FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) 367
 8.6.3 Cable Operators & New Entrants 368
 8.6.4 Neutral Hosts 369
 8.6.5 Private Cellular Networks 370
 8.6.5.1 Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses 371
 8.6.5.2 Vertical Industries 372
 8.7 Regional Outlook 373
 8.7.1 North America 374
 8.7.2 Asia Pacific 375
 8.7.3 Europe 376
 8.7.4 Middle East & Africa 377
 8.7.5 Latin & Central America 378
 
 9 Chapter 9: Key Ecosystem Players 379
 9.1 4RF 379
 9.2 6Harmonics/6WiLInk 380
 9.3 7P (Seven Principles) 381
 9.4 ABiT Corporation 382
 9.5 Accelleran 383
 9.6 Accuver (InnoWireless) 384
 9.7 ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies) 385
 9.8 Affirmed Networks (Microsoft Corporation) 386
 9.9 AI-LINK 387
 9.10 Airgain 388
 9.11 Airspan Networks 389
 9.12 Airtower Networks 390
 9.13 Airwavz Solutions 391
 9.14 Akoustis Technologies 392
 9.15 albis-elcon (UET – United Electronic Technology) 393
 9.16 Alcadis 394
 9.17 Alef (Alef Edge) 395
 9.18 Allen Vanguard Wireless 396
 9.19 Alpha Wireless 397
 9.20 Alsatis Réseaux 398
 9.21 Amazon/AWS (Amazon Web Services) 399
 9.22 Ambra Solutions-ECOTEL 400
 9.23 Amdocs 401
 9.24 American Tower Corporation 402
 9.25 AMIT Wireless 403
 9.26 Anritsu 404
 9.27 ANS – Advanced Network Services (Charge Enterprises) 405
 9.28 Antenna Company 406
 9.29 Anterix 407
 9.30 Apple 408
 9.31 aql 409
 9.32 Aquila (Suzhou Aquila Solutions) 410
 9.33 Aqura Technologies (Telstra Purple) 411
 9.34 Arctic Semiconductor (Formerly SiTune Corporation) 412
 9.35 Arete M 413
 9.36 Artemis Networks 414
 9.37 Askey Computer Corporation (ASUS – ASUSTeK Computer) 415
 9.38 ASOCS 416
 9.39 ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute) 417
 9.40 ASUS (ASUSTeK Computer) 418
 9.41 ATDI 419
 9.42 ATEL (Asiatelco Technologies) 420
 9.43 Athonet (HPE – Hewlett Packard Enterprise) 421
 9.44 ATN International 422
 9.45 AttoCore 423
 9.46 Aviat Networks 424
 9.47 Axians (VINCI Energies) 426
 9.48 Azcom Technology 427
 9.49 Baicells 428
 9.50 Ballast Networks 429

List Of Figures

 Figure 1: Value Chain of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Networks 63
 Figure 2: CBRS Tiers of Authorization 76
 Figure 3: CBRS System Architecture 78
 Figure 4: Functional Architecture of LSA 80
 Figure 5: Spectrum Access Schemes Supported by eLSA 81
 Figure 6: AFC System Model 83
 Figure 7: Anchored & Standalone NR-U 95
 Figure 8: Standardization of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum-Related Features in 3GPP Releases 13 – 18 166
 Figure 9: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 336
 Figure 10: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 336
 Figure 11: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments by Air Interface Technology: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 337
 Figure 12: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 337
 Figure 13: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 338
 Figure 14: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 338
 Figure 15: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 339
 Figure 16: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum 5G NR Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 339
 Figure 17: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments by Cell Type: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 340
 Figure 18: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Cell Type: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 340
 Figure 19: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Indoor Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 341
 Figure 20: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Indoor Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 341
 Figure 21: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Outdoor Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 342
 Figure 22: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Outdoor Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 342
 Figure 23: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments by Spectrum Licensing Model: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 343
 Figure 24: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Spectrum Licensing Model: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 343
 Figure 25: Coordinated Shared Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 344
 Figure 26: Coordinated Shared Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 344
 Figure 27: Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 345
 Figure 28: Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 345
 Figure 29: Coordinated Shared Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments by Frequency Band: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 346
 Figure 30: Coordinated Shared Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Frequency Band: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 346
 Figure 31: 1.8 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 347
 Figure 32: 1.8 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 347
 Figure 33: 2.3 – 2.6 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 348
 Figure 34: 2.3 – 2.6 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 348
 Figure 35: 3.4 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 349
 Figure 36: 3.4 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 349
 Figure 37: 3.5 GHz CBRS PAL Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 350
 Figure 38: 3.5 GHz CBRS PAL Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 350
 Figure 39: 3.7-3.8 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 351
 Figure 40: 3.7-3.8 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 351
 Figure 41: 3.8-4.2 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 352
 Figure 42: 3.8-4.2 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 352
 Figure 43: 4.6-4.9 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 353
 Figure 44: 4.6-4.9 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 353
 Figure 45: 26/28 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 354
 Figure 46: 26/28 GHz Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 354
 Figure 47: Other Frequency Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 355
 Figure 48: Other Frequency Shared Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 355
 Figure 49: Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments by Frequency Band: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 356
 Figure 50: Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Frequency Band: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 356
 Figure 51: 600 MHz TVWS Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 357
 Figure 52: 600 MHz TVWS Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 357
 Figure 53: 1.9 GHz sXGP Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 358
 Figure 54: 1.9 GHz sXGP Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 358
 Figure 55: 2.4 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 359
 Figure 56: 2.4 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 359
 Figure 57: 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 360
 Figure 58: 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 360
 Figure 59: 5 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 361
 Figure 60: 5 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 361
 Figure 61: 6 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 362
 Figure 62: 6 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 362
 Figure 63: 60 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 363
 Figure 64: 60 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 363
 Figure 65: Other Frequency Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 364
 Figure 66: Other Frequency Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 364
 Figure 67: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments by Use Case: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 365
 Figure 68: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Use Case: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 365
 Figure 69: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments for Mobile Network Densification: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 366
 Figure 70: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Mobile Network Densification: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 366
 Figure 71: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments for FWA: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 367
 Figure 72: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for FWA: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 367
 Figure 73: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments for Cable Operators & New Entrants: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 368
 Figure 74: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Cable Operators & New Entrants: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 368
 Figure 75: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments for Neutral Hosts: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 369
 Figure 76: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Neutral Hosts: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 369
 Figure 77: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments for Private Cellular Networks: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 370
 Figure 78: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Private Cellular Networks: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 370
 Figure 79: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments for Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 371
 Figure 80: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 371
 Figure 81: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments for Vertical Industries: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 372
 Figure 82: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue for Vertical Industries: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 372
 Figure 83: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipments by Region: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 373
 Figure 84: Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 373
 Figure 85: North America Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 374
 Figure 86: North America Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 374
 Figure 87: Asia Pacific Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 375
 Figure 88: Asia Pacific Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 375
 Figure 89: Europe Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 376
 Figure 90: Europe Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 376
 Figure 91: Middle East & Africa Shared/Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 377
 Figure 92: Middle East & Africa Shared/Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 377
 Figure 93: Latin & Central America Shared/Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2023 – 2030 (Thousands of Units) 378
 Figure 94: Latin & Central America Shared/Unlicensed Spectrum Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2023 – 2030 ($ Million) 378
 Figure 95: Distribution of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G RAN Investments by Frequency Band: 2023 – 2026 (%) 835
 Figure 96: Future Roadmap of Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum LTE/5G Networks: 2023 – 2030 836 


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