The Private LTE & 5G Network Ecosystem: 2023 - 2030 - Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies, Industry Verticals & Forecasts

Synopsis

Historically a niche segment of the wider cellular communications industry, private cellular networks - also referred to as NPNs (Non-Public Networks) in 3GPP terminology - have rapidly gained popularity in recent years due to privacy, security, reliability and performance advantages over public mobile networks and competing wireless technologies as well as their potential to replace hardwired connections with non-obstructive wireless links. With the 3GPP-led standardization of features such as MCX (Mission-Critical PTT, Video & Data), URLLC (Ultra-Reliable, Low-Latency Communications), TSC (Time-Sensitive Communications), SNPNs (Standalone NPNs), PNI-NPNs (Public Network-Integrated NPNs) and network slicing, private networks based on LTE and 5G technologies have gained recognition as an all-inclusive connectivity platform for critical communications, Industry 4.0 and enterprise transformation-related applications. Traditionally, these sectors have been dominated by LMR (Land Mobile Radio), Wi-Fi, industrial Ethernet, fiber and other disparate networks.

The liberalization of spectrum is another factor that is accelerating the adoption of private LTE and 5G networks. National regulators across the globe have released or are in the process of granting access to shared and local area licensed spectrum. Examples include but are not limited to the three-tiered CBRS (Citizens Broadband Radio Service) spectrum sharing scheme in the United States, Canadas planned NCL (Non-Competitive Local) licensing framework, United Kingdoms shared and local access licensing model, Germanys 3.7-3.8 GHz and 28 GHz licenses for 5G campus networks, Frances vertical spectrum and sub-letting arrangements, Netherlands geographically restricted mid-band spectrum assignments, Finlands 2.3 GHz and 26 GHz licenses for local 4G/5G networks, Swedens 3.7 GHz and 26 GHz permits, Norways regulation of local networks in the 3.8-4.2 GHz band, Polands spectrum assignment for local government units and enterprises, Bahrains private 5G network licenses, Japans 4.6-4.9 GHz and 28 GHz local 5G network licenses, South Koreas e-Um 5G allocations in the 4.7 GHz and 28 GHz bands, Taiwans provision of 4.8-4.9 GHz spectrum for private 5G networks, Hong Kongs LWBS (Localized Wireless Broadband System) licenses, Australias apparatus licensing approach, Indias CNPN (Captive Non-Public Network) leasing framework and Brazils SLP (Private Limited Service) licenses. Even China - where mobile operators have been at the forefront of initial private 5G installations - has started allocating private 5G spectrum licenses directly to end user organizations. Vast swaths of globally and regionally harmonized license-exempt spectrum are also available worldwide that can be used for the operation of unlicensed LTE and 5G NR-U equipment for private networks. In addition, dedicated national spectrum in sub-1 GHz and higher frequencies has been allocated for specific critical communications-related applications in many countries.

LTE and 5G-based private cellular networks come in many different shapes and sizes, including isolated end-to-end NPNs in industrial and enterprise settings, local RAN equipment for targeted cellular coverage, dedicated on-premise core network functions, virtual sliced private networks, secure MVNO (Mobile Virtual Network Operator) platforms for critical communications, and wide area networks for application scenarios such as PPDR (Public Protection & Disaster Relief) broadband, smart utility grids, railway communications and A2G (Air-to-Ground) connectivity. However, it is important to note that equipment suppliers, system integrators, private network specialists, mobile operators and other ecosystem players have slightly different perceptions as to what exactly constitutes a private cellular network. While there is near universal consensus that private LTE and 5G networks refer to purpose-built cellular communications systems intended for the exclusive use of vertical industries and enterprises, some industry participants extend this definition to also include other market segments - for example, 3GPP-based community and residential broadband networks deployed by non-traditional service providers. Another closely related segment is multi-operator or shared neutral host infrastructure, which may be employed to support NPN services in specific scenarios.

Despite the somewhat differing views on market definition, one thing is clear - private LTE and 5G networks are continuing their upward trajectory with deployments targeting a multitude of use cases across various industries, ranging from localized wireless systems for dedicated connectivity in factories, warehouses, mines, power plants, substations, offshore wind farms, oil and gas facilities, construction sites, maritime ports, airports, hospitals, office buildings and university campuses to regional and nationwide sub-1 GHz private wireless broadband networks for utilities, FRMCS (Future Railway Mobile Communication System)-ready networks for train-to-ground communications, and hybrid government-commercial public safety LTE networks, as well as rapidly deployable systems such as the German Armed Forces ZNV (Deployable Cellular Networks) solution, Hsinchu City Fire Departments satellite-backhauled portable 5G network for emergency communications and BBCs (British Broadcasting Corporation) temporary private 5G network used during King Charles coronation. Custom-built cellular networks have also been implemented in locations as remote as Antarctica and there are even plans for installations on the moons surface and outer space.

SNS Telecom & IT estimates that global spending on private LTE and 5G network infrastructure for vertical industries will grow at a CAGR of approximately 18% between 2023 and 2026, eventually accounting for more than $6.4 Billion by the end of 2026. As much as 40% of these investments - nearly $2.8 Billion - will be directed towards the build-out of standalone private 5G networks that will become the predominant wireless communications medium to support the ongoing Industry 4.0 revolution for the digitization and automation of manufacturing and process industries. This unprecedented level of growth is likely to transform private LTE and 5G networks into an almost parallel equipment ecosystem to public mobile operator infrastructure in terms of market size by the late 2020s.

The "Private LTE & 5G Network Ecosystem: 2023 - 2030 - Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies, Industry Verticals & Forecasts" report presents an in-depth assessment of the private LTE and 5G network ecosystem, including the value chain, market drivers, barriers to uptake, enabling technologies, operational and business models, vertical industries, application scenarios, key trends, future roadmap, standardization, spectrum availability and allocation, regulatory landscape, case studies, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also presents global and regional market size forecasts from 2023 till 2030. The forecasts cover three infrastructure submarkets, two technology generations, four spectrum licensing models, 15 vertical industries and five regional markets.

The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report, as well as a database of over 6,000 global private LTE/5G engagements - as of Q22023.

Key Findings

The report has the following key findings:

  • SNS Telecom & IT estimates that global spending on private LTE and 5G network infrastructure for vertical industries will grow at a CAGR of approximately 18% between 2023 and 2026, eventually accounting for more than $6.4 Billion by the end of 2026.
  • As much as 40% of these investments - nearly $2.8 Billion - will be directed towards the build-out of standalone private 5G networks that will become the predominant wireless communications medium to support the ongoing Industry 4.0 revolution for the digitization and automation of manufacturing and process industries.
  • This unprecedented level of growth in the coming years is likely to transform private LTE and 5G networks into an almost parallel equipment ecosystem to public mobile operator infrastructure in terms of market size by the late 2020s.
  • Existing private cellular network deployments range from localized wireless systems in industrial and enterprise settings to sub-1 GHz private wireless broadband networks for utilities, FRMCS-ready networks for train-to-ground communications, and hybrid government-commercial public safety broadband networks, as well as rapidly deployable LTE/5G systems that deliver temporary or on-demand cellular connectivity.
  • As for the practical and quantifiable benefits of private LTE and 5G networks, end user organizations across manufacturing, mining, oil and gas, ports and other vertical industries have credited private cellular network installations with productivity and efficiency gains in the range of 30 to 70%, cost savings of more than 20%, and an uplift of up to 80% in worker safety and accident reduction.
  • Spectrum liberalization initiatives - particularly shared and local spectrum licensing frameworks - are playing a pivotal role in accelerating the adoption of private LTE and 5G networks. Telecommunications regulators in multiple national markets - including the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Netherlands, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Poland, Bahrain, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, Australia, India and Brazil - have released or are in the process of granting access to shared and local area licensed spectrum.
  • By capitalizing on their extensive licensed spectrum holdings, infrastructure assets and cellular networking expertise, national mobile operators have continued to retain a strong foothold in the private LTE and 5G network market. With an expanded focus on vertical B2B (Business-to-Business) opportunities in the 5G era, mobile operators are actively involved in diverse projects extending from localized 5G networks for secure and reliable wireless connectivity in industrial and enterprise environments to nationwide public safety broadband networks.
  • New classes of private network operators have also found success in the market. Notable examples include but are not limited to Celona, Betacom, Kajeet, BearCom, Ambra Solutions, iNET (Infrastructure Networks), Tampnet, Smart Mobile Labs, MUGLER, Telent, Logicalis, Citymesh, Netmore, RADTONICS, Combitech, Grape One (Japan), NS Solutions, OPTAGE, Wave-In Communication and the private 4G/5G business units of neutral host infrastructure providers such as Boingo Wireless, Crown Castle, Cellnex Telecom, BAI Communications/Boldyn Networks, Freshwave and Digita.
  • NTT, Kyndryl and other global system integrators have been quick to seize the private cellular opportunity with strategic technology alliances and early commercial wins. Meanwhile, hyperscalers - most notably AWS (Amazon Web Services), Google and Microsoft - are offering managed private 5G services by leveraging their cloud and edge platforms.
  • Although greater vendor diversity is beginning to be reflected in infrastructure sales, larger players are continuing to invest in strategic acquisitions as highlighted by HPEs (Hewlett Packard Enterprise) recent acquisition of Italian mobile core technology provider Athonet.
  • The service provider segment is not immune to consolidation either. For example, in Australia, mobile operator Telstra - through its Telstra Purple division - has acquired industrial private wireless specialist Aqura Technologies. More recently, specialist fiber and network solutions provider Vocus has acquired Challenge Networks - another Australian pioneer in private LTE and 5G networks.

Summary of Private LTE/5G Engagements

Some of the existing and planned private LTE and 5G engagements are summarized below:

  • Agriculture: Private cellular network installations in the agriculture industry range from custom-built 250 MHz LTE networks that provide wide area cellular coverage for agribusiness machinery, vehicles, sensors and field workers in Brazil to Japans standalone local 5G networks supporting 4K UHD (Ultra-High Definition) video transmission, mobile robotics, remote-controlled tractors and other advanced smart agriculture-related application capabilities.
  • Aviation: Private LTE and 5G networks have been deployed or are being trialed to support internal operations at some of the busiest international and domestic airports, including Hong Kong, Shanghai Pudong and Hongqiao, Tokyo Narita, London Heathrow, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Orly and Le Bourget, Frankfurt, Cologne Bonn, Brussels, Amsterdam Schiphol, Vienna, Athens, Oslo, Helsinki, Bahrain, Chicago OHare, DFW (Dallas Fort Worth), Dallas Love Field and MSP (Minneapolis-St. Paul). Lufthansa Technik and JAL (Japan Airlines), among others, are leveraging private 5G connectivity for aircraft maintenance operations. In addition, national and cross-border A2G (Air-to-Ground) networks for inflight broadband and critical airborne communications are also beginning to gain significant traction.
  • Broadcasting: Within the broadcasting industry, FOX Sports, BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), BT Group, RTE (Raidió Teilifís Éireann), Media Broadcast, WDR (Westdeutscher Rundfunk Köln), RTVE (Radiotelevisión Española), SVT (Sveriges Television), NRK (Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation), TV 2, TVBS, CMG (China Media Group) and several other media and broadcast players are utilizing private 5G networks - both temporary and fixed installations - to support live production and other use cases.
  • Construction: Mortenson, Ferrovial, BAM Nuttall (Royal BAM Group), Fira (Finland), Kumagai Gumi, Obayashi Corporation, Shimizu Corporation, Taisei Corporation, Takenaka Corporation, CSCEC (China State Construction Engineering Corporation), Hoban Construction, Hip Hing Engineering, Gammon Construction and Hyundai E&C (Engineering & Construction) are notable examples of companies that have employed the use of private LTE and 5G networks to enhance productivity and worker safety at construction sites.
  • Education: Higher education institutes are at the forefront of hosting on-premise 5G networks in campus environments. Tokyo Metropolitan University, McMaster University, Texas A&M University, Purdue University, Cal Poly (California Polytechnic State University), Northeastern University, UWM (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), RWTH Aachen University, TU Kaiserslautern (Technical University of Kaiserslautern) and CTU (Czech Technical University in Prague) are among the many universities that have deployed private 5G networks for experimental research or smart campus-related applications. Another prevalent theme in the education sector is the growing number of purpose-built LTE networks aimed at eliminating the digital divide for remote learning - particularly CBRS networks for school districts in the United States.
  • Forestry: There is considerable interest in private cellular networks to fulfill the communications needs of the forestry industry for both industrial and environmental purposes. For example, Swedish forestry company SCA (Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget) is deploying local 5G networks to facilitate digitization and automation at its timber terminals and paper mills, while Tolko Industries and Resolute Forest Products are utilizing portable LTE systems to support their remote forestry operations in remote locations in Quebec and British Columbia, Canada, where cellular coverage has previously been scarce or non-existent.
  • Healthcare: Dedicated 5G campus networks have been installed or are being implemented to support smart healthcare applications in many hospitals, including Nagasaki University Hospital, West China Second University Hospital (Sichuan University), SMC (Samsung Medical Center), Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Bethlem Royal Hospital, Frankfurt University Hospital, Helios Park Hospital Leipzig, UKD (University Hospital of Düsseldorf), UKSH (University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein), UKB (University Hospital Bonn), Cleveland Clinics Mentor Hospital and Hospital das Clínicas (São Paulo). In addition, on-premise LTE networks are also operational at many hospitals and medical complexes across the globe.
  • Manufacturing: AGC, Airbus, Arçelik, ASN (Alcatel Submarine Networks), Atlas Copco, BASF, BMW, BorgWarner, British Sugar, Calpak, China Baowu Steel Group, COMAC (Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China), Del Conca, Delta Electronics, Dow, Ford, Foxconn, GM (General Motors), Gerdau, Glanbia, Haier, Holmen Iggesund, Inventec, John Deere, Logan Aluminum, Magna Steyr, Mercedes-Benz, Midea, Miele, Navantia, Renault, Ricoh, Saab, SANY Heavy Industry, Schneider Electric, SIBUR, Whirlpool, X Shore and Yara International and dozens of additional manufacturers - including LTE/5G equipment suppliers themselves - have already integrated private cellular connectivity into their production operations at their factories. Many others - including ArcelorMittal, Bayer, Bosch, Hyundai, KAI (Korea Aerospace Industries), Nestlé, Nissan, SEAT, Siemens, Stellantis, Toyota, Volkswagen and WEG - are treading cautiously in their planned transition from initial pilot installations to live 5G networks for Industry 4.0 applications.
  • Military: Led by the U.S. DODs (Department of Defense) "5G-to-Next G" initiative, several programs are underway to accelerate the adoption of private 5G networks at military bases and training facilities, defense-specific network slices and portable cellular systems for tactical communications. The U.S. military, Canadian Army, Bundeswehr (German Armed Forces), Italian Army, Norwegian Armed Forces, Finnish Defense Forces, Latvian Ministry of Defense, Qatar Armed Forces, ADF (Australian Defence Force), ROK (Republic of Korea) Armed Forces and Brazilian Army are among the many adopters of private cellular networks in the military sector.
  • Mining: Mining companies are increasingly deploying 3GPP-based private wireless networks at their surface and underground mining operations to support mine-wide communications between workers, real-time video monitoring, teleoperation of mining equipment, fleet management, self-driving trucks and other applications. Some noteworthy examples include Agnico Eagle, Albemarle, Anglo American, AngloGold Ashanti, Antofagasta Minerals, BHP, Boliden, Codelco, China Shenhua Energy, China National Coal, Eldorado Gold, Exxaro, Fortescue Metals, Freeport-McMoRan, Glencore, Gold Fields, Jiangxi Copper, Metalloinvest, Newcrest Mining, Newmont, Northern Star Resources, Nornickel (Norilsk Nickel), Nutrien, Polyus, Polymetal International, Rio Tinto, Roy Hill, Severstal, Shaanxi Coal, South32, Southern Copper (Grupo México), Teck Resources, Vale, Yankuang Energy and Zijin Mining.
  • Oil & Gas: Arrow Energy, BP, Centrica, Chevron, CNOOC (China National Offshore Oil Corporation), ConocoPhillips, Equinor, ExxonMobil, Gazprom Neft, Neste, PCK Raffinerie, Petrobras, PetroChina/CNPC (China National Petroleum Corporation), Phillips 66, PKN ORLEN, Repsol, Santos, Schlumberger, Shell, Sinopec (China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation), TotalEnergies and many others in the oil and gas industry are utilizing private cellular networks. Some companies are pursuing a multi-faceted approach to address their diverse connectivity requirements. For instance, Aramco (Saudi Arabian Oil Company) is adopting a 450 MHz LTE network for critical communications, LEO satellite-based NB-IoT coverage to enable connectivity for remote IoT assets, and private 5G networks for advanced Industry 4.0-related applications.
  • Ports & Maritime Transport: Many port and terminal operators are investing in private LTE and 5G networks to provide high-speed and low-latency wireless connectivity for applications such as AGVs (Automated Guided Vehicles), remote-controlled cranes, smart cargo handling and predictive maintenance. Prominent examples include but are not limited to APM Terminals (Maersk), CMPort (China Merchants Port Holdings), COSCO Shipping Ports, Hutchison Ports, PSA International, SSA Marine (Carrix) and Steveco. In the maritime transport segment, onboard private cellular networks - supported by satellite backhaul links - are widely being utilized to provide voice, data, messaging and IoT connectivity services for both passenger and cargo vessels while at sea.
  • Public Safety: A myriad of fully dedicated, hybrid government-commercial and secure MVNO/MOCN (Multi-Operator Core Network)-based public safety LTE networks are operational or in the process of being rolled out throughout the globe, ranging from national mission-critical broadband platforms such as FirstNet, South Koreas Safe-Net, Frances RRF (Radio Network of the Future), Spains SIRDEE and Finlands VIRVE 2.0 to the Royal Thai Polices 800 MHz LTE network and Halton-Peel region PSBN (Public Safety Broadband Network) in Canadas Ontario province. 5G NR-equipped PPDR (Public Protection & Disaster Relief) broadband systems are also starting to be adopted by first responder agencies. For example, Taiwans Hsinchu City Fire Department is using an emergency response vehicle - which features a satellite-backhauled private 5G network based on Open RAN standards - to establish high-bandwidth, low-latency emergency communications in disaster zones.
  • Railways: Although the GSM-R to FRMCS (Future Railway Mobile Communication System) transition is not expected until the late 2020s, a number of LTE and 5G-based networks for railway communications are being deployed, including Adif AVs private 5G network for logistics terminals, SGPs (Société du Grand Paris) private LTE network for the Grand Paris Express metro system, PTAs (Public Transport Authority of Western Australia) radio systems replacement project, NCRTCs (National Capital Regional Transport Corporation) private LTE network for the Delhi-Meerut RRTS (Regional Rapid Transit System) corridor, KRNAs (Korea Rail Network Authority) LTE-R network and China State Railway Groups 5G-R program. DB (Deutsche Bahn), SNCF (French National Railways), Network Rail and others are also progressing their 5G-based rail connectivity projects prior to operational deployment.
  • Utilities: Private cellular networks in the utilities industry range from wide area 3GPP networks - operating in 410 MHz, 450 MHz, 900 MHz and other sub-1 GHz spectrum bands - for smart grid communications to purpose-built LTE and 5G networks aimed at providing localized wireless connectivity in critical infrastructure facilities such as power plants, substations and offshore wind farms. Some examples of end user adopters include Ameren, CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation), CPFL Energia, CSG (China Southern Power Grid), E.ON, Edesur Dominicana, EDF, Enel, ESB Networks, Bahrain EWA (Electricity and Water Authority), Evergy, Fortum, Hokkaido Electric Power, Iberdrola, Kansai Electric Power, KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation), LCRA (Lower Colorado River Authority), Osaka Gas, PGE (Polish Energy Group), SDG&E (San Diego Gas & Electric), SGCC (State Grid Corporation of China), Southern Company, Tampa Electric (Emera) and Xcel Energy.
  • Other Sectors: Private LTE and 5G networks have also been deployed in other vertical sectors, extending from sports, arts and culture to retail, hospitality and public services. From a horizontal perspective, enterprise RAN systems for indoor coverage enhancement are relatively common and end-to-end private networks are also starting to be implemented in office buildings and campuses. BlackRock, ImaginOffice (Icade), Mitsui Fudosan, NAVER, Rudin Management Company and WISTA Management are among the companies that have deployed on-premise private 5G networks in office environments.

Topics Covered

The report covers the following topics:

  • Introduction to private LTE and 5G networks
  • Value chain and ecosystem structure
  • Market drivers and challenges
  • System architecture and key elements of private LTE and 5G networks
  • Operational and business models, network size, geographic reach and other practical aspects of private LTE and 5G networks
  • Critical communications broadband evolution, Industry 4.0, enterprise transformation and other themes shaping the adoption of private LTE and 5G networks
  • Enabling technologies and concepts, including 3GPP-defined MCX, URLLC, TSC, NR-U, SNPN and PNI-NPN, cellular IoT, high-precision positioning, network slicing, edge computing and network automation capabilities
  • Key trends such as the emergence of new classes of specialized network operators, shared and local area spectrum licensing, private NaaS (Network-as-a-Service) offerings, IT/OT convergence, Open RAN, vRAN (Virtualized RAN) and rapidly deployable LTE/5G systems
  • Analysis of vertical industries and application scenarios, extending from mission-critical group communications and real-time video transmission to reconfigurable wireless production lines, collaborative mobile robots, AGVs (Automated Guided Vehicles) and untethered AR/VR/MR (Augmented, Virtual & Mixed Reality)
  • Future roadmap of private LTE and 5G networks
  • Review of private LTE and 5G network installations worldwide, including 100 case studies spanning 15 verticals
  • Database tracking more than 6,000 private LTE and 5G engagements in over 120 countries across the globe
  • Spectrum availability, allocation and usage across the global, regional and national domains
  • Standardization, regulatory and collaborative initiatives
  • Profiles and strategies of more than 1,800 ecosystem players
  • Strategic recommendations for LTE/5G equipment and chipset suppliers, system integrators, private network specialists, mobile operators and end user organizations
  • Market analysis and forecasts from 2023 till 2030

Forecast Segmentation

Market forecasts are provided for each of the following submarkets and their subcategories:

Infrastructure Submarkets

  • RAN (LTE & 5G NR Radio Access Network)
    • Base Station RUs (Radio Units)
    • DUs/CUs (Distributed & Centralized Baseband Units)
  • Mobile Core (EPC & 5GC)
    • User Plane Functions
    • Control Plane Functions
  • Transport Network (Fronthaul, Midhaul & Backhaul)
    • Fiber & Wireline
    • Microwave
    • Satellite Communications

Technology Generations

  • LTE
  • 5G

Cell Sizes

  • Small Cells
    • Indoor
    • Outdoor
  • Macrocells

Spectrum Licensing Models

  • Mobile Operator-Owned Spectrum
  • Wide Area Licensed Spectrum
  • Shared & Local Area Licensed Spectrum
  • Unlicensed Spectrum

Frequency Ranges

  • Low-Band (Sub-1 GHz)
  • Mid-Band (1-6 GHz)
  • High-Band mmWave (Millimeter Wave)

End User Markets

  • Vertical Industries
    • Agriculture
    • Aviation
    • Broadcasting
    • Construction
    • Education
    • Forestry
    • Healthcare
    • Manufacturing
    • Military
    • Mining
    • Oil & Gas
    • Ports & Maritime Transport
    • Public Safety
    • Railways
    • Utilities
    • Others
  • Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses

Regional Markets

  • North America
  • Asia Pacific
  • Europe
  • Middle East & Africa
  • Latin & Central America

Key Questions Answered:

The report provides answers to the following key questions:

  • How big is the private LTE and 5G network opportunity?
  • What trends, drivers and challenges are influencing its growth?
  • What will the market size be in 2026, and at what rate will it grow?
  • Which submarkets, verticals and regions will see the highest percentage of growth?
  • What is the status of private LTE and 5G network adoption in each country, and what are the primary application scenarios of these networks?
  • How is private cellular connectivity facilitating the digital transformation of manufacturing, mining, oil and gas, ports and other vertical industries?
  • What are the practical and quantifiable benefits of private LTE and 5G networks in terms of productivity improvement, cost reduction and worker safety?
  • How can satellite backhaul and direct-to-device NTN (Non-Terrestrial Network) access expand the reach of private networks in remote environments?
  • How are MCPTT (Mission-Critical PTT) capabilities enabling the transition from narrowband LMR systems to 3GPP-based private broadband networks?
  • What are the key characteristics of standalone private 5G connectivity, and when will URLLC, TSC and other 3GPP-defined IIoT (Industrial IoT) features be widely employed?
  • How can private edge computing accommodate latency-sensitive applications while enhancing data sovereignty and security?
  • Where does network slicing for differentiated service requirements fit in the private cellular networking landscape?
  • What are the existing and candidate frequency bands for the operation of private LTE and 5G networks?
  • How are CBRS and other coordinated shared/local spectrum licensing frameworks accelerating the uptake of private networks?
  • When will sub-1 GHz critical communications LTE networks begin their transition to 5G technology?
  • What are the prospects of private 5G networks operating in mmWave spectrum?
  • What is the impact of post-pandemic changes on private LTE and 5G network deployments?
  • What opportunities exist for hyperscalers, managed services providers and other new entrants?
  • Who are the key ecosystem players, and what are their strategies?
  • What strategies should LTE/5G equipment suppliers, system integrators, private network specialists and mobile operators adopt to remain competitive?

Chapter 1: Introduction

  • 1.1. Executive Summary
  • 1.2. Topics Covered
  • 1.3. Forecast Segmentation
  • 1.4. Key Questions Answered
  • 1.5. Key Findings
  • 1.6. Summary of Private LTE/5G Engagements
  • 1.7. Methodology
  • 1.8. Target Audience
  • 1.9. Companies & Organizations Mentioned

Chapter 2: An Overview of Private LTE & 5G Networks

  • 2.1. An Introduction to the 3GPP-Defined LTE & 5G Standards
    • 2.1.1. LTE: The First Global Standard for Cellular Communications
    • 2.1.2. LTE-Advanced: Delivering the Promise of True 4G Performance
    • 2.1.3. LTE-Advanced Pro: Laying the Foundation for the 5G Era
    • 2.1.4. 5G: Accelerating 3GPP Expansion in Vertical Industries
      • 2.1.4.1. 5G Service Profiles
        • 2.1.4.1.1. eMBB (Enhanced Mobile Broadband)
        • 2.1.4.1.2. URLLC (Ultra-Reliable, Low-Latency Communications)
        • 2.1.4.1.3. mMTC/mIoT (Massive Machine-Type Communications/Internet of Things)
    • 2.1.5. 5G-Advanced & the Evolution to 6G
  • 2.2. Why Adopt LTE & 5G-Based Private Wireless Networks?
    • 2.2.1. Performance, Mobility, Reliability & Security Characteristics
    • 2.2.2. Ability to Address Both Wide Area & Localized Coverage Needs
    • 2.2.3. Variety of Frequency Bands, Bandwidth Flexibility & Spectral Efficiency
    • 2.2.4. Interworking With Public Mobile Networks & Non-3GPP Technologies
    • 2.2.5. 3GPP Support for Industrial-Grade & Mission-Critical Applications
    • 2.2.6. Future-Proof Transition Path Towards 6G Networks
    • 2.2.7. Thriving Ecosystem of Chipsets, Devices & Network Equipment
    • 2.2.8. Economic Viability of Deployment & Operational Costs
  • 2.3. Key Themes Influencing the Adoption of Private LTE & 5G Networks
    • 2.3.1. Critical Communications Broadband Evolution
    • 2.3.2. Industry 4.0-Driven Wireless Connectivity Requirements
    • 2.3.3. Localized Cellular Coverage for Enterprise Transformation Initiatives
    • 2.3.4. Neutral Hosting, Smart Cities, Community Broadband & Other Themes
  • 2.4. Practical Aspects of Private LTE & 5G Networks
    • 2.4.1. LTE & 5G Technology Deployment Modes
      • 2.4.1.1. LTE
      • 2.4.1.2. NSA (Non-Standalone) 5G
      • 2.4.1.3. SA (Standalone) 5G
    • 2.4.2. Spectrum Options
      • 2.4.2.1. National Spectrum for Specific Applications
        • 2.4.2.1.1. Defense & PPDR (Public Protection & Disaster Relief)
        • 2.4.2.1.2. Utilities & Critical Infrastructure Industries
        • 2.4.2.1.3. Aviation, Maritime & Railway Communications
        • 2.4.2.1.4. Other Segments
      • 2.4.2.2. Local Area Licensed Spectrum
        • 2.4.2.2.1. Local Area Licenses for Enterprises & Vertical Users
        • 2.4.2.2.2. Local Leasing of Public Mobile Operator Frequencies
        • 2.4.2.2.3. ASA (Authorized Shared Access) & Light Licensing
      • 2.4.2.3. Unlicensed Spectrum
        • 2.4.2.3.1. Designated License-Exempt Bands
        • 2.4.2.3.2. Opportunistic Unlicensed Access
    • 2.4.3. Network Size & Geographic Reach
      • 2.4.3.1. Wide Area Private Cellular Networks
      • 2.4.3.2. Medium-Scale Local Area Networks
      • 2.4.3.3. On-Premise Campus Networks
    • 2.4.4. Operational Scenarios
      • 2.4.4.1. Isolated NPNs (Non-Public Networks)
      • 2.4.4.2. Public Mobile Operator-Integrated NPNs
        • 2.4.4.2.1. Dedicated Mobile Operator RAN Coverage
        • 2.4.4.2.2. Shared RAN With On-Premise Core
        • 2.4.4.2.3. Shared RAN & Control Plane
        • 2.4.4.2.4. NPNs Hosted By Public Networks
      • 2.4.4.3. Virtual Sliced Private Networks
      • 2.4.4.4. Hybrid Public-Private Networks
      • 2.4.4.5. Shared Core Private Networks
      • 2.4.4.6. Secure MVNO (Mobile Virtual Network Operator) Arrangements
      • 2.4.4.7. Other Approaches
    • 2.4.5. Business Models
      • 2.4.5.1. Fully Independent Private Networks
      • 2.4.5.2. Service Provider-Managed Private Networks
      • 2.4.5.3. Hybrid Ownership, Management & Control
      • 2.4.5.4. Private NaaS (Network-as-a-Service)
      • 2.4.5.5. Other Business Models
  • 2.5. The Value Chain of Private LTE & 5G Networks
    • 2.5.1. Semiconductor & Enabling Technology Specialists
    • 2.5.2. Terminal OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers)
    • 2.5.3. RAN, Core & Transport Infrastructure Suppliers
    • 2.5.4. Service Providers
      • 2.5.4.1. Critical Communications, Industrial, OT & IT System Integrators
      • 2.5.4.2. Pure-Play Private 4G/5G Network Operators
      • 2.5.4.3. National Mobile Operators
      • 2.5.4.4. MVNOs
      • 2.5.4.5. Neutral Hosts
      • 2.5.4.6. Towercos (Tower Companies)
      • 2.5.4.7. Cloud & Edge Platform Providers
      • 2.5.4.8. Fixed-Line Service Providers
      • 2.5.4.9. Fiber Network Operators
      • 2.5.4.10. Satellite Communications Service Providers
    • 2.5.5. End User Organizations
    • 2.5.6. Other Ecosystem Players
  • 2.6. Market Drivers
    • 2.6.1. Growing Demand for High-Bandwidth & Low-Latency Wireless Applications
    • 2.6.2. Endorsement From the Critical Communications & Industry 4.0 Sectors
    • 2.6.3. Limited Public Cellular Coverage in Indoor, Industrial & Remote Environments
    • 2.6.4. Availability of Suitable Spectrum Options for Private Use
    • 2.6.5. Guaranteed Connectivity & QoS (Quality-of-Service) Control
    • 2.6.6. Greater Levels of Network Security & Data Privacy
    • 2.6.7. Operators & Vendors Desire for New Revenue Sources
    • 2.6.8. Government-Funded 5G Innovation Initiatives
  • 2.7. Market Barriers
    • 2.7.1. Cost & ROI (Return-On-Investment) Justification
    • 2.7.2. Technical Complexities of Network Deployment & Operation
    • 2.7.3. Integration With Existing Infrastructure & Applications
    • 2.7.4. Limited Scale Effects Due to Lack of Spectrum Harmonization
    • 2.7.5. Competition From Non-3GPP Technologies & Solutions
    • 2.7.6. LTE/5G Terminal Equipment-Related Challenges
    • 2.7.7. Skills Gap & Shortage of Proficient Engineers
    • 2.7.8. Conservatism & Slow Pace of Change

Chapter 3: Private LTE/5G System Architecture & Technologies

  • 3.1. Architectural Components of Private LTE/5G Networks
  • 3.2. UE (User Equipment)
    • 3.2.1. Smartphones & Handportable Devices
    • 3.2.2. Industrial-Grade Routers & Gateways
    • 3.2.3. Mobile Hotspots & Vehicular Terminals
    • 3.2.4. Fixed Wireless CPEs (Customer Premises Equipment)
    • 3.2.5. Tablets & Notebook PCs
    • 3.2.6. Smart Wearables
    • 3.2.7. Cellular IoT Modules
    • 3.2.8. Add-On Dongles
  • 3.3. RAN (Radio Access Network)
    • 3.3.1. E-UTRAN - LTE RAN
      • 3.3.1.1. eNBs - LTE Base Stations
    • 3.3.2. NG-RAN - 5G NR Access Network
      • 3.3.2.1. gNBs - 5G NR Base Stations
      • 3.3.2.2. en-gNBs - Secondary Node 5G NR Base Stations
      • 3.3.2.3. ng-eNBs - Next-Generation LTE Base Stations
    • 3.3.3. Architectural Components of eNB/gNB Base Stations
      • 3.3.3.1. RUs (Radio Units)
      • 3.3.3.2. Integrated Radio & Baseband Units
      • 3.3.3.3. DUs (Distributed Baseband Units)
      • 3.3.3.4. CUs (Centralized Baseband Units)
  • 3.4. Mobile Core
    • 3.4.1. EPC (Evolved Packet Core): LTE Mobile Core
      • 3.4.1.1. SGW (Serving Gateway)
      • 3.4.1.2. PGW (Packet Data Network Gateway)
      • 3.4.1.3. MME (Mobility Management Entity)
      • 3.4.1.4. HSS (Home Subscriber Server)
      • 3.4.1.5. PCRF (Policy Charging & Rules Function)
    • 3.4.2. 5GC (5G Core): Core Network for Standalone 5G Implementations
      • 3.4.2.1. Access, Mobility & Session Management
        • 3.4.2.1.1. AMF (Access & Mobility Management Function)
        • 3.4.2.1.2. SMF (Session Management Function)
        • 3.4.2.1.3. UPF (User Plane Function)
      • 3.4.2.2. Subscription & Data Management
        • 3.4.2.2.1. AUSF (Authentication Server Function)
        • 3.4.2.2.2. AAnF (AKMA Anchor Function)
        • 3.4.2.2.3. UDM (Unified Data Management)
        • 3.4.2.2.4. UDR (Unified Data Repository)
        • 3.4.2.2.5. UDSF (Unstructured Data Storage Function)
        • 3.4.2.2.6. UCMF (UE Radio Capability Management Function)
        • 3.4.2.2.7. 5G-EIR (5G Equipment Identity Register)
      • 3.4.2.3. Policy & Charging
        • 3.4.2.3.1. PCF (Policy Control Function)
        • 3.4.2.3.2. CHF (Charging Function)
      • 3.4.2.4. Signaling & Routing
        • 3.4.2.4.1. SCP (Service Communication Proxy)
        • 3.4.2.4.2. SEPP (Security Edge Protection Proxy)
        • 3.4.2.4.3. BSF (Binding Support Function)
      • 3.4.2.5. Network Resource Management
        • 3.4.2.5.1. NEF (Network Exposure Function)
        • 3.4.2.5.2. NRF (Network Repository Function)
        • 3.4.2.5.3. NSSF (Network Slice Selection Function)
        • 3.4.2.5.4. NSSAAF (Network Slice-Specific & SNPN Authentication-Authorization Function)
        • 3.4.2.5.5. NSACF (Network Slice Admission Control Function)
      • 3.4.2.6. Data Analytics & Automation
        • 3.4.2.6.1. NWDAF (Network Data Analytics Function)
        • 3.4.2.6.2. AnLF (Analytics Logical Function)
        • 3.4.2.6.3. MTLF (Model Training Logical Function)
        • 3.4.2.6.4. DCCF (Data Collection Coordination Function)
        • 3.4.2.6.5. ADRF (Analytics Data Repository Function)
        • 3.4.2.6.6. MFAF (Messaging Framework Adaptor Function)
      • 3.4.2.7. Location Services
        • 3.4.2.7.1. LMF (Location Management Function)
        • 3.4.2.7.2. GMLC (Gateway Mobile Location Center)
      • 3.4.2.8. Application Enablement
        • 3.4.2.8.1. AFs (Application Functions)
        • 3.4.2.8.2. SMSF (Short Message Service Function)
        • 3.4.2.8.3. CBCF (Cell Broadcast Center Function)
        • 3.4.2.8.4. 5G DDNMF (5G Direct Discovery Name Management Function)
        • 3.4.2.8.5. TSCTSF (Time-Sensitive Communication & Time Synchronization Function)
        • 3.4.2.8.6. TSN AF (Time-Sensitive Networking Application Function)
        • 3.4.2.8.7. EASDF (Edge Application Server Discovery Function)
      • 3.4.2.9. Multicast-Broadcast Support
        • 3.4.2.9.1. MB-SMF (Multicast-Broadcast SMF)
        • 3.4.2.9.2. MB-UPF (Multicast-Broadcast UPF)
        • 3.4.2.9.3. MBSF (Multicast-Broadcast Service Function)
        • 3.4.2.9.4. MBSTF (Multicast-Broadcast Service Transport Function)
  • 3.5. Transport Network
    • 3.5.1. Fronthaul: RU-to-DU Transport
    • 3.5.2. Midhaul: DU-to-CU Transport
    • 3.5.3. Backhaul: RAN-to-Core Transport
    • 3.5.4. Physical Transmission Mediums
      • 3.5.4.1. Fiber & Wireline Transport Technologies
        • 3.5.4.1.1. Owned, Lit & Dark Fiber
        • 3.5.4.1.2. Ethernet & IP-Based Transport
        • 3.5.4.1.3. WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing)
        • 3.5.4.1.4. PON (Passive Optical Network)
        • 3.5.4.1.5. OTN (Optical Transport Network)
        • 3.5.4.1.6. DOCSIS, G.fast & Other Technologies
      • 3.5.4.2. Microwave & mmWave (Millimeter Wave) Wireless Links
        • 3.5.4.2.1. Traditional Bands (6 - 42 GHz)
        • 3.5.4.2.2. V-Band (60 GHz)
        • 3.5.4.2.3. E-Band (70/80 GHz)
        • 3.5.4.2.4. W-Band (92 - 114.25 GHz)
        • 3.5.4.2.5. D-Band (130 - 174.8 GHz)
      • 3.5.4.3. Satellite Communications
        • 3.5.4.3.1. GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit)
        • 3.5.4.3.2. MEO (Medium Earth Orbit)
        • 3.5.4.3.3. LEO (Low Earth Orbit)
  • 3.6. Services & Interconnectivity
    • 3.6.1. End User Application Services
      • 3.6.1.1. Generic Broadband, Messaging & IoT Services
      • 3.6.1.2. IMS Core: VoLTE-VoNR (Voice-Over-LTE/5G NR) & MMTel (Multimedia Telephony)
      • 3.6.1.3. MBMS, eMBMS, FeMBMS & 5G MBS/5MBS (5G Multicast-Broadcast Services)
      • 3.6.1.4. Group Communications & MCS (Mission-Critical Services)
      • 3.6.1.5. IIoT (Industrial IoT), Cyber-Physical Control & Domain-Specific Connected Services
      • 3.6.1.6. ProSe (Proximity-Based Services) for Direct D2D (Device-to-Device) Discovery & Communications
      • 3.6.1.7. Vehicular, Aviation, Maritime & Railway-Related Applications
      • 3.6.1.8. 3GPP Service Frameworks for Vertical Industries
        • 3.6.1.8.1. CAPIF (Common API Framework)
        • 3.6.1.8.2. SEAL (Service Enabler Architecture Layer for Verticals)
        • 3.6.1.8.3. EDGEAPP (Architecture for Enabling Edge Applications)
      • 3.6.1.9. VAL (Vertical Application Layer) Enablers
        • 3.6.1.9.1. V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything)
        • 3.6.1.9.2. UAS (Uncrewed Aerial Systems)
        • 3.6.1.9.3. 5GMARCH/MSGin5G (Messaging in 5G)
        • 3.6.1.9.4. FF (Factories of the Future)
        • 3.6.1.9.5. PINAPP (Personal IoT Networks), XR (Extended Reality) & Others
    • 3.6.2. Interconnectivity With 3GPP & Non-3GPP Networks
      • 3.6.2.1. 3GPP Roaming & Service Continuity
        • 3.6.2.1.1. National & International Roaming
        • 3.6.2.1.2. Service Continuity Outside Network Footprint
      • 3.6.2.2. Non-3GPP Network Integration
        • 3.6.2.2.1. ePDG (Evolved Packet Data Gateway)
        • 3.6.2.2.2. TWAG/TWAP (Trusted WLAN Access Gateway/Proxy)
        • 3.6.2.2.3. ANDSF (Access Network Discovery & Selection Function)
        • 3.6.2.2.4. N3IWF (Non-3GPP Interworking Function)
        • 3.6.2.2.5. TNGF (Trusted Non-3GPP Gateway Function)
        • 3.6.2.2.6. TWIF (Trusted WLAN Interworking Function)
        • 3.6.2.2.7. NSWOF (Non-Seamless WLAN Offload Function)
        • 3.6.2.2.8. W-AGF (Wireline Access Gateway Function)
        • 3.6.2.2.9. IWF (Interworking Function) for LMR (Land Mobile Radio)
        • 3.6.2.2.10. ATSSS (Access Traffic Steering, Switching & Splitting)
  • 3.7. Key Enabling Technologies & Concepts
    • 3.7.1. 3GPP Support for NPNs (Non-Public Networks)
      • 3.7.1.1. Types of NPNs
        • 3.7.1.1.1. SNPNs (Standalone NPNs)
        • 3.7.1.1.2. PNI-NPNs (Public Network-Integrated NPNs)
      • 3.7.1.2. SNPN Identification & Selection
      • 3.7.1.3. PNI-NPN Resource Allocation & Isolation
      • 3.7.1.4. CAG (Closed Access Group) for Cell Access Control
      • 3.7.1.5. Mobility, Roaming & Service Continuity
      • 3.7.1.6. Interworking Between SNPNs & Public Networks
      • 3.7.1.7. UE Configuration & Subscription-Related Aspects
      • 3.7.1.8. Other 3GPP-Defined Capabilities for NPNs
    • 3.7.2. Critical Communications
      • 3.7.2.1. MCX (Mission-Critical PTT, Video & Data)
      • 3.7.2.2. QPP (QoS, Priority & Preemption)
      • 3.7.2.3. IOPS (Isolated Operation for Public Safety)
      • 3.7.2.4. Cell Site & Infrastructure Hardening
      • 3.7.2.5. HPUE (High-Power User Equipment)
      • 3.7.2.6. Other UE-Related Functional Enhancements
    • 3.7.3. Industry 4.0 & Cellular IoT
      • 3.7.3.1. URLLC Techniques: High-Reliability & Low-Latency Enablers
      • 3.7.3.2. 5G LAN (Local Area Network)-Type Service
      • 3.7.3.3. Integration With IEEE 802.1 TSN (Time-Sensitive Networking) Systems
      • 3.7.3.4. Native 3GPP Support for TSC (Time-Sensitive Communications)
      • 3.7.3.5. 5G NR Light: RedCap (Reduced Capability) UE Type
      • 3.7.3.6. eMTC, NB-IoT & mMTC: Wide Area & High-Density IoT Applications
    • 3.7.4. High-Precision Positioning
      • 3.7.4.1. Assisted-GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)
      • 3.7.4.2. RAN-Based Positioning Techniques
      • 3.7.4.3. RAN-Independent Methods
    • 3.7.5. Edge Computing
      • 3.7.5.1. Optimizing Latency, Service Performance & Backhaul Costs
      • 3.7.5.2. 3GPP-Defined Features for Edge Computing Support
      • 3.7.5.3. Public vs. Private Edge Computing
    • 3.7.6. Network Slicing
      • 3.7.6.1. Logical Partitioning of Network Resources
      • 3.7.6.2. 3GPP Functions, Identifiers & Procedures for Slicing
      • 3.7.6.3. RAN Slicing
      • 3.7.6.4. Mobile Core Slicing
      • 3.7.6.5. Transport Network Slicing
      • 3.7.6.6. UE-Based Network Slicing Features
      • 3.7.6.7. Management & Orchestration Aspects
    • 3.7.7. Network Sharing
      • 3.7.7.1. Service-Specific PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) IDs
      • 3.7.7.2. DNN (Data Network Name)/APN (Access Point Name)-Based Isolation
      • 3.7.7.3. GWCN (Gateway Core Network): Core Network Sharing
      • 3.7.7.4. MOCN (Multi-Operator Core Network): RAN & Spectrum Sharing
      • 3.7.7.5. MORAN (Multi-Operator RAN): RAN Sharing Without Spectrum Pooling
      • 3.7.7.6. DECOR (Dedicated Core) & eDECOR (Enhanced DECOR)
      • 3.7.7.7. Roaming in Non-Overlapping Service Areas
      • 3.7.7.8. Passive Sharing of Infrastructure Resources
    • 3.7.8. E2E (End-to-End) Security
      • 3.7.8.1. UE Authentication Framework
      • 3.7.8.2. Subscriber Privacy
      • 3.7.8.3. Air Interface Confidentiality & Integrity
      • 3.7.8.4. Resilience Against Radio Jamming
      • 3.7.8.5. RAN, Core & Transport Network Security
      • 3.7.8.6. Security Aspects of Network Slicing
      • 3.7.8.7. Application Domain Protection
      • 3.7.8.8. Other Security Considerations
    • 3.7.9. Shared & Unlicensed Spectrum
      • 3.7.9.1. CBRS (Citizens Broadband Radio Service): Three-Tiered Sharing
      • 3.7.9.2. LSA (Licensed Shared Access): Two-Tiered Sharing
      • 3.7.9.3. Local Area Licensing of Shared Spectrum
      • 3.7.9.4. LTE-U, LAA (Licensed Assisted Access), eLAA (Enhanced LAA) & FeLAA (Further Enhanced LAA)
      • 3.7.9.5. MulteFire: Standalone LTE Operation in Unlicensed Spectrum
      • 3.7.9.6. License-Exempt 1.9 GHz sXGP (Shared Extended Global Platform)
      • 3.7.9.7. 5G NR-U (NR in Unlicensed Spectrum)
    • 3.7.10. Rapidly Deployable LTE & 5G Network Systems
      • 3.7.10.1. NIB (Network-in-a-Box) Systems
      • 3.7.10.2. Vehicular COWs (Cells-on-Wheels)
      • 3.7.10.3. Aerial Cell Sites
      • 3.7.10.4. Maritime Cellular Platforms
    • 3.7.11. Direct Communications & Coverage Expansion
      • 3.7.11.1. Sidelink for Direct Mode D2D Communications
      • 3.7.11.2. UE-to-Network & UE-to-UE Relays
      • 3.7.11.3. Indoor & Outdoor Small Cells
      • 3.7.11.4. DAS (Distributed Antenna Systems)
      • 3.7.11.5. IAB (Integrated Access & Backhaul)
      • 3.7.11.6. Mobile IAB: VMRs (Vehicle-Mounted Relays)
      • 3.7.11.7. NCRs (Network-Controlled Repeaters)
      • 3.7.11.8. NTNs (Non-Terrestrial Networks)
      • 3.7.11.9. ATG/A2G (Air-to-Ground) Connectivity
    • 3.7.12. Cloud-Native, Software-Driven & Open Networking
      • 3.7.12.1. Cloud-Native Technologies
      • 3.7.12.2. Microservices & SBA (Service-Based Architecture)
      • 3.7.12.3. Containerization of Network Functions
      • 3.7.12.4. NFV (Network Functions Virtualization)
      • 3.7.12.5. SDN (Software-Defined Networking)
      • 3.7.12.6. Cloud Compute, Storage & Networking Infrastructure
      • 3.7.12.7. APIs (Application Programming Interfaces)
      • 3.7.12.8. Open RAN & Core Architectures
    • 3.7.13. Network Intelligence & Automation
      • 3.7.13.1. AI (Artificial Intelligence)
      • 3.7.13.2. Machine & Deep Learning
      • 3.7.13.3. Big Data & Advanced Analytics
      • 3.7.13.4. SON (Self-Organizing Networks)
      • 3.7.13.5. Intelligent Control, Management & Orchestration
      • 3.7.13.6. Support for Network Intelligence & Automation in 3GPP Standards

Chapter 4: Key Vertical Industries & Applications

  • 4.1. Cross-Sector & Enterprise Application Capabilities
    • 4.1.1. Mobile Broadband
    • 4.1.2. FWA (Fixed Wireless Access)
    • 4.1.3. Voice & Messaging Services
    • 4.1.4. High-Definition Video Transmission
    • 4.1.5. Telepresence & Video Conferencing
    • 4.1.6. Multimedia Broadcasting & Multicasting
    • 4.1.7. IoT (Internet of Things) Networking
    • 4.1.8. Wireless Connectivity for Wearables
    • 4.1.9. Untethered AR/VR/MR (Augmented, Virtual & Mixed Reality)
    • 4.1.10. Real-Time Holographic Projections
    • 4.1.11. Tactile Internet & Haptic Feedback
    • 4.1.12. Precise Positioning & Tracking
    • 4.1.13. Industrial Automation
    • 4.1.14. Remote Control of Machines
    • 4.1.15. Connected Mobile Robotics
    • 4.1.16. Unmanned & Autonomous Vehicles
    • 4.1.17. BVLOS (Beyond Visual Line-of-Sight) Operation of Drones
    • 4.1.18. Data-Driven Analytics & Insights
    • 4.1.19. Sensor-Equipped Digital Twins
    • 4.1.20. Predictive Maintenance of Assets
  • 4.2. Vertical Industries & Specific Application Scenarios
    • 4.2.1. Agriculture
      • 4.2.1.1. Intelligent Monitoring of Crop, Soil & Weather Conditions
      • 4.2.1.2. IoT & Advanced Analytics-Driven Yield Optimization
      • 4.2.1.3. Sensor-Based Smart Irrigation Control Systems
      • 4.2.1.4. Real-Time Tracking & Geofencing in Farms
      • 4.2.1.5. Livestock & Aquaculture Health Management
      • 4.2.1.6. Video-Based Remote Veterinary Inspections
      • 4.2.1.7. Unmanned Autonomous Tractors & Farm Vehicles
      • 4.2.1.8. Robots for Planting, Weeding & Harvesting
      • 4.2.1.9. 5G-Equipped Agricultural Drones
      • 4.2.1.10. Connected Greenhouses & Vertical Farms
    • 4.2.2. Aviation
      • 4.2.2.1. Inflight Connectivity for Passengers & Cabin Crew
      • 4.2.2.2. Connected Airports for Enhanced Traveler & Visitor Experience
      • 4.2.2.3. Coordination of Ground Support Equipment, Vehicles & Personnel
      • 4.2.2.4. ATM (Air Traffic Management) for Drones & Urban Air Mobility Vehicles
      • 4.2.2.5. Wireless Upload of EFB (Electronic Flight Bag) & IFE (In-Flight Entertainment) Updates
      • 4.2.2.6. Aircraft Data Offload for Operational & Maintenance Purposes
      • 4.2.2.7. Video Surveillance of Airport Surface & Terminal Areas
      • 4.2.2.8. 5G-Enabled Remote Inspection & Repair of Aircraft
      • 4.2.2.9. Navigation, Weather & Other IoT Sensors
      • 4.2.2.10. Smart Baggage Handling
      • 4.2.2.11. Asset Awareness & Tracking
      • 4.2.2.12. Passenger Flow & Resource Management
      • 4.2.2.13. Automation of Check-In & Boarding Procedures
      • 4.2.2.14. Intelligent Airport Service Robots
    • 4.2.3. Broadcasting
      • 4.2.3.1. 3GPP-Based PMSE (Program Making & Special Events)
      • 4.2.3.2. Live AV (Audio-Visual) Media Production Using NPNs
      • 4.2.3.3. Private 5G-Enabled Production in Remote Locations
      • 4.2.3.4. Network Slicing for Contribution Feeds
      • 4.2.3.5. Wire-Free Cameras & Microphones
      • 4.2.3.6. Multicast & Broadcast Content Distribution
    • 4.2.4. Construction
      • 4.2.4.1. Wireless Connectivity for Construction Sites & Field Offices
      • 4.2.4.2. Instantaneous Access to Business-Critical Applications
      • 4.2.4.3. 5G-Based Remote Control of Heavy Machinery
      • 4.2.4.4. Autonomous Mobile Robots for Construction
      • 4.2.4.5. IoT Sensor-Driven Maintenance of Equipment
      • 4.2.4.6. Video Surveillance & Analytics for Site Security
      • 4.2.4.7. Real-Time Visibility of Personnel, Assets & Materials
      • 4.2.4.8. Aerial Surveying & Monitoring of Construction Sites
    • 4.2.5. Education
      • 4.2.5.1. Remote & Distance Learning Services
      • 4.2.5.2. Mobile Access to Academic Resources
      • 4.2.5.3. 5G-Connected Smart Classrooms
      • 4.2.5.4. Automation of Administrative Tasks
      • 4.2.5.5. Personalized & Engaging Learning
      • 4.2.5.6. AR/VR-Based Immersive Lessons
      • 4.2.5.7. 5G-Enabled Virtual Field Trips
      • 4.2.5.8. Educational Telepresence Robots
    • 4.2.6. Forestry
      • 4.2.6.1. Wireless Connectivity for Forestry Operations & Recreation
      • 4.2.6.2. 5G-Facilitated Teleoperation of Forestry Equipment
      • 4.2.6.3. Autonomous Harvesting & Milling Machinery
      • 4.2.6.4. Real-Time Tracking of Equipment, Vehicles & Personnel
      • 4.2.6.5. Cellular IoT Sensors for Biological & Environmental Monitoring
      • 4.2.6.6. Wireless Cameras for Wildlife Observation, Conservation & Security
      • 4.2.6.7. Early Wildfire Detection & Containment Systems
      • 4.2.6.8. Drones for Search & Rescue Operations
    • 4.2.7. Healthcare
      • 4.2.7.1. 5G-Connected Smart Hospitals & Healthcare Facilities
      • 4.2.7.2. Wireless Transmission of Medical Imagery & Rich Datasets
      • 4.2.7.3. Real-Time Monitoring of Patients in Acute & Intensive Care
      • 4.2.7.4. Telehealth Video Consultations for Visual Assessment
      • 4.2.7.5. Connectivity for AI-Based Healthcare Applications
      • 4.2.7.6. AR Systems for Complex Medical Procedures
      • 4.2.7.7. Remote-Controlled Surgery & Examination
      • 4.2.7.8. Assisted Living & Rehabilitation Robotics
      • 4.2.7.9. Immersive VR-Based Medical & Surgical Training
      • 4.2.7.10. Connected Ambulances for EMS (Emergency Medical Services)
    • 4.2.8. Manufacturing
      • 4.2.8.1. Untethered Connectivity for Production & Process Automation
      • 4.2.8.2. Wireless Motion Control & C2C (Control-to-Control) Communications
      • 4.2.8.3. Cellular-Equipped Mobile Control Panels
      • 4.2.8.4. Mobile Robots & AGVs (Automated Guided Vehicles)
      • 4.2.8.5. Autonomous Forklifts & Warehouse Robotics
      • 4.2.8.6. AR-Facilitated Factory Floor Operations
      • 4.2.8.7. Machine Vision-Based Quality Inspection
      • 4.2.8.8. Closed-Loop Process Control
      • 4.2.8.9. Process & Environmental Monitoring
      • 4.2.8.10. Precise Indoor Positioning for Asset Management
      • 4.2.8.11. Remote Access & Maintenance of Equipment
    • 4.2.9. Military
      • 4.2.9.1. 5G-Based Tactical Battlefield Communications
      • 4.2.9.2. Smart Military Bases & Command Posts
      • 4.2.9.3. ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance)
      • 4.2.9.4. Command & Control of Weapon Systems
      • 4.2.9.5. Remote Operation of Robotics & Unmanned Assets
      • 4.2.9.6. AR HUD (Heads-Up Display) Systems
      • 4.2.9.7. Wireless VR/MR-Based Military Training
      • 4.2.9.8. Perimeter Security & Force Protection
    • 4.2.10. Mining
      • 4.2.10.1. Safety-Critical Communications in Remote Mining Environments
      • 4.2.10.2. Wireless Control of Drilling, Excavation & Related Equipment
      • 4.2.10.3. Automated Loading, Haulage & Train Operations
      • 4.2.10.4. Video-Based Monitoring of Personnel & Assets
      • 4.2.10.5. Underground Positioning & Geofencing
      • 4.2.10.6. Smart Ventilation & Water Management
      • 4.2.10.7. Real-Time Operational Intelligence
      • 4.2.10.8. AR & VR for Mining Operations
    • 4.2.11. Oil & Gas
      • 4.2.11.1. Wireless Connectivity for Remote Exploration & Production Sites
      • 4.2.11.2. Critical Voice & Data-Based Mobile Workforce Communications
      • 4.2.11.3. Push-to-Video & Telepresence Conferencing for Field Operations
      • 4.2.11.4. Cellular-Equipped Surveillance Cameras for Situational Awareness
      • 4.2.11.5. IoT Sensor-Enabled Remote Monitoring & Automation of Processes
      • 4.2.11.6. SCADA (Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition) Communications
      • 4.2.11.7. Location Services for Worker Safety & Asset Tracking
      • 4.2.11.8. AR Smart Helmets for Hands-Free Remote Assistance
      • 4.2.11.9. Predictive Maintenance of Oil & Gas Facilities
      • 4.2.11.10. Mobile Robots for Safety Hazard Inspections
    • 4.2.12. Ports & Maritime Transport
      • 4.2.12.1. Critical Communications for Port Workers
      • 4.2.12.2. Automation of Port & Terminal Operations
      • 4.2.12.3. 5G-Connected AGVs for Container Transport
      • 4.2.12.4. Remote-Controlled Cranes & Terminal Tractors
      • 4.2.12.5. Video Analytics for Operational Purposes
      • 4.2.12.6. Environmental & Condition Monitoring
      • 4.2.12.7. Port Traffic Management & Control
      • 4.2.12.8. AR & VR Applications for Port Digitization
      • 4.2.12.9. Unmanned Aerial Inspections of Port Facilities
      • 4.2.12.10. Private Cellular-Enabled Maritime Communications
      • 4.2.12.11. Wireless Ship-to-Shore Connectivity in Nearshore Waters
      • 4.2.12.12. 5G-Facilitated Remote Steering of Unmanned Vessels
    • 4.2.13. Public Safety
      • 4.2.13.1. Mission-Critical PTT Voice Communications
      • 4.2.13.2. Real-Time Video & High-Resolution Imagery
      • 4.2.13.3. Messaging, File Transfer & Presence Services
      • 4.2.13.4. Secure & Seamless Mobile Broadband Access
      • 4.2.13.5. Location-Based Services & Enhanced Mapping
      • 4.2.13.6. Multimedia CAD (Computer-Aided Dispatch)
      • 4.2.13.7. Massive-Scale Video Surveillance & Analytics
      • 4.2.13.8. Smart Glasses & AR Headgear for First Responders
      • 4.2.13.9. 5G-Equipped Police, Firefighting & Rescue Robots
      • 4.2.13.10. 5G MBS/5MBS in High-Density Environments
      • 4.2.13.11. Sidelink-Based Direct Mode Communications
    • 4.2.14. Railways
      • 4.2.14.1. FRMCS (Future Railway Mobile Communication System)
      • 4.2.14.2. Train-to-Ground & Train-to-Train Connectivity
      • 4.2.14.3. Wireless Intra-Train Communications
      • 4.2.14.4. Rail Operations-Critical Voice, Data & Video Services
      • 4.2.14.5. ATO (Automatic Train Operation) & Traffic Management
      • 4.2.14.6. Video Surveillance for Operational Safety & Security
      • 4.2.14.7. Smart Maintenance of Railway Infrastructure
      • 4.2.14.8. Intelligent Management of Logistics Facilities
      • 4.2.14.9. Onboard Broadband Internet Access
      • 4.2.14.10. PIS (Passenger Information Systems)
      • 4.2.14.11. Smart Rail & Metro Station Services
    • 4.2.15. Utilities
      • 4.2.15.1. Multi-Service FANs (Field Area Networks)
      • 4.2.15.2. Critical Applications for Field Workforce Communications
      • 4.2.15.3. AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure)
      • 4.2.15.4. DA (Distribution Automation) Systems
      • 4.2.15.5. Microgrid & DER (Distributed Energy Resource) Integration
      • 4.2.15.6. 5G-Enabled VPPs (Virtual Power Plants)
      • 4.2.15.7. Low-Latency SCADA Applications for Utilities
      • 4.2.15.8. Teleprotection of Transmission & Distribution Grids
      • 4.2.15.9. Video Monitoring for Critical Infrastructure Protection
      • 4.2.15.10. Sensor-Based Detection of Water & Gas Leaks
      • 4.2.15.11. AR Information Overlays for Repairs & Maintenance
      • 4.2.15.12. Drone & Robot-Assisted Inspections of Utility Assets
      • 4.2.15.13. Local Wireless Connectivity for Remote & Offshore Facilities
    • 4.2.16. Other Verticals

Chapter 5: Spectrum Availability, Allocation & Usage

  • 5.1. National & Local Area Licensed Spectrum
    • 5.1.1. Low-Band (Sub-1 GHz)
      • 5.1.1.1. 200 - 400 MHz
      • 5.1.1.2. 410 & 450 MHz
      • 5.1.1.3. 600 MHz
      • 5.1.1.4. 700 MHz
      • 5.1.1.5. 800 MHz
      • 5.1.1.6. 900 MHz
    • 5.1.2. Mid-Band (1 - 6 GHz)
      • 5.1.2.1. 1.4 GHz
      • 5.1.2.2. 1.6 GHz
      • 5.1.2.3. 1.8 GHz
      • 5.1.2.4. 1.9 GHz
      • 5.1.2.5. 2.1 GHz
      • 5.1.2.6. 2.3 GHz
      • 5.1.2.7. 2.4 GHz
      • 5.1.2.8. 2.5 GHz
      • 5.1.2.9. 2.6 GHz
      • 5.1.2.10. 3.3 - 3.8 GHz
      • 5.1.2.11. 3.8 - 4.2 GHz
      • 5.1.2.12. 4.6 - 4.9 GHz
      • 5.1.2.13. Other Bands
    • 5.1.3. High-Band mmWave (Millimeter Wave)
      • 5.1.3.1. 26 GHz
      • 5.1.3.2. 28 GHz
      • 5.1.3.3. 37 GHz
      • 5.1.3.4. Other Bands
  • 5.2. License-Exempt (Unlicensed) Spectrum
    • 5.2.1. Sub-1 GHz Bands (470 - 790/800/900 MHz)
    • 5.2.2. 1.8 GHz DECT Guard Band
    • 5.2.3. 1.9 GHz sXGP Band
    • 5.2.4. 2.4 GHz (2,400 - 2,483.5 MHz)
    • 5.2.5. 3.5 GHz CBRS GAA Tier (3,550 - 3,700 MHz)
    • 5.2.6. 5 GHz (5,150 - 5,925 MHz)
    • 5.2.7. 6 GHz (5,925 - 7,125 MHz)
    • 5.2.8. 60 GHz (57 - 71 GHz)
    • 5.2.9. Other Bands
  • 5.3. North America
    • 5.3.1. United States
    • 5.3.2. Canada
  • 5.4. Asia Pacific
    • 5.4.1. Australia
    • 5.4.2. New Zealand
    • 5.4.3. China
    • 5.4.4. Hong Kong
    • 5.4.5. Taiwan
    • 5.4.6. Japan
    • 5.4.7. South Korea
    • 5.4.8. Singapore
    • 5.4.9. Malaysia
    • 5.4.10. Indonesia
    • 5.4.11. Philippines
    • 5.4.12. Thailand
    • 5.4.13. Vietnam
    • 5.4.14. Laos
    • 5.4.15. Myanmar
    • 5.4.16. India
    • 5.4.17. Pakistan
    • 5.4.18. Rest of Asia Pacific
  • 5.5. Europe
    • 5.5.1. United Kingdom
      • 5.5.1.1. Great Britain
      • 5.5.1.2. Northern Ireland
    • 5.5.2. Republic of Ireland
    • 5.5.3. France
    • 5.5.4. Germany
    • 5.5.5. Belgium
    • 5.5.6. Netherlands
    • 5.5.7. Switzerland
    • 5.5.8. Austria
    • 5.5.9. Italy
    • 5.5.10. Spain
    • 5.5.11. Portugal
    • 5.5.12. Sweden
    • 5.5.13. Norway
    • 5.5.14. Denmark
    • 5.5.15. Finland
    • 5.5.16. Estonia
    • 5.5.17. Czech Republic
    • 5.5.18. Poland
    • 5.5.19. Ukraine
    • 5.5.20. Türkiye
    • 5.5.21. Greece
    • 5.5.22. Bulgaria
    • 5.5.23. Romania
    • 5.5.24. Hungary
    • 5.5.25. Slovenia
    • 5.5.26. Croatia
    • 5.5.27. Russia
    • 5.5.28. Belarus
    • 5.5.29. Rest of Europe
  • 5.6. Middle East & Africa
    • 5.6.1. Saudi Arabia
    • 5.6.2. United Arab Emirates
    • 5.6.3. Qatar
    • 5.6.4. Oman
    • 5.6.5. Bahrain
    • 5.6.6. Kuwait
    • 5.6.7. Jordan
    • 5.6.8. Israel
    • 5.6.9. Egypt
    • 5.6.10. Algeria
    • 5.6.11. Morocco
    • 5.6.12. Tunisia
    • 5.6.13. South Africa
    • 5.6.14. Botswana
    • 5.6.15. Zambia
    • 5.6.16. Kenya
    • 5.6.17. Ethiopia
    • 5.6.18. Angola
    • 5.6.19. Republic of the Congo
    • 5.6.20. Gabon
    • 5.6.21. Nigeria
    • 5.6.22. Ghana
    • 5.6.23. Senegal
    • 5.6.24. Rest of the Middle East & Africa
  • 5.7. Latin & Central America
    • 5.7.1. Brazil
    • 5.7.2. Mexico
    • 5.7.3. Argentina
    • 5.7.4. Colombia
    • 5.7.5. Chile
    • 5.7.6. Peru
    • 5.7.7. Ecuador
    • 5.7.8. Bolivia
    • 5.7.9. Dominican Republic
    • 5.7.10. Bardados
    • 5.7.11. Trinidad & Tobago
    • 5.7.12. Suriname
    • 5.7.13. Rest of Latin & Central America

Chapter 6: Standardization, Regulatory & Collaborative Initiatives

  • 6.1. 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project)
    • 6.1.1. Releases 11-14: 3GPP-Based Critical Communications Features
    • 6.1.2. Release 15: 5G eMBB, Network Slicing, Improvements for MTC/IoT & MCX Extensions
    • 6.1.3. Release 16: 3GPP Support for NPNs, 5G URLLC, TSN, NR-U & Vertical Application Enablers
    • 6.1.4. Release 17: NPN Enhancements, Edge Computing, TSC, Expansion of IIoT Features, RedCap & NTN Connectivity
    • 6.1.5. Release 18: 5G-Advanced, Further NPN Refinements, DetNet, Intelligent Automation, Spectrum Flexibility & XR Services
    • 6.1.6. Releases 19, 20, 21 & Beyond: Succession From 5G-Advanced to the 6G Evolution
  • 6.2. 450 MHz Alliance
    • 6.2.1. Promoting 3GPP Technologies in the 380 - 470 MHz Frequency Range
  • 6.3. 5G-ACIA (5G Alliance for Connected Industries and Automation)
    • 6.3.1. Maximizing the Applicability of 5G Technology in the Industrial Domain
  • 6.4. 5GAIA (5G Applications Industry Array)
    • 6.4.1. Advancing the Development of Chinas 5G Applications Industry
  • 6.5. 5G Campus Network Alliance
    • 6.5.1. Supporting the Market Development of 5G Campus Networks in Germany
  • 6.6. 5GDNA (5G Deterministic Networking Alliance)
    • 6.6.1. Industry Collaboration & Promotion of 5GDN (5G Deterministic Networking)
  • 6.7. 5GFF (5G Future Forum)
    • 6.7.1. Accelerating the Delivery of 5G MEC (Multi-Access Edge Computing) Solutions
  • 6.8. 5G Forum (South Korea)
    • 6.8.1. Expanding Convergence Between 5G Technology & Vertical Industries
  • 6.9. 5G Health Association
    • 6.9.1. Interfacing 5G-Based Connectivity & Healthcare Applications
  • 6.1. 5G-MAG (5G Media Action Group)
    • 6.10.1. 5G-Based NPNs in Media Production
  • 6.11. 5GMF (Fifth Generation Mobile Communication Promotion Forum, Japan)
    • 6.11.1. Initiatives Related to Local 5G Networks in Japan
  • 6.12. 5GSA (5G Slicing Association)
    • 6.12.1. Addressing Vertical Industry Requirements for 5G Network Slicing
  • 6.13. 6G-IA (6G Smart Networks and Services Industry Association)
    • 6.13.1. Private 5G-Related Projects & Activities
  • 6.14. AGURRE (Association of Major Users of Operational Radio Networks, France)
    • 6.14.1. Spectrum Access, Regulatory Framework & Industrial Ecosystem for Private Mobile Networks
  • 6.15. APCO (Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials) International
    • 6.15.1. Public Safety LTE/5G-Related Advocacy Efforts
  • 6.16. ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
    • 6.16.1. Deployment & Operational Requirements of 5G-Based NPNs
    • 6.16.2. Shared HNI & IBN Administration for CBRS Spectrum
    • 6.16.3. Other Private LTE & 5G-Related Initiatives
  • 6.17. BTG (Dutch Association of Large-Scale ICT & Telecommunications Users)
    • 6.17.1. KMBG (Dutch Critical Mobile Broadband Users) Expert Group
  • 6.18. B-TrunC (Broadband Trunking Communication) Industry Alliance
    • 6.18.1. B-TrunC Standard for LTE-Based Critical Communications
  • 6.19. CAMET (China Association of Metros)
    • 6.19.1. Adoption of 3GPP Networks for Urban Rail Transit Systems
  • 6.2. CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)
    • 6.20.1. Common Spectrum Policies for Local 4G/5G, PPDR Broadband & FRMCS
  • 6.21. DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance)
    • 6.21.1. Promoting Unlicensed & Dynamic Access to Spectrum
  • 6.22. Electricity Canada (Canadian Electricity Association)
    • 6.22.1. PVNO & Dedicated Spectrum for Smart Grid Communications
  • 6.23. ENTELEC (Energy Telecommunications and Electrical Association)
    • 6.23.1. Policy Advocacy & Other Private LTE/5G-Related Activities
  • 6.24. EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute)
    • 6.24.1. Research & Guidelines in Support of 3GPP-Based Utility Communications
  • 6.25. ERA (European Union Agency for Railways)
    • 6.25.1. Evolution of Railway Radio Communication Project
  • 6.26. ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
    • 6.26.1. Technical Specifications for FRMCS, PPDR Broadband, MCX & TETRA-3GPP Interworking
    • 6.26.2. Other Work Relevant to Private LTE & 5G Networks
  • 6.27. EU-Rail (Europes Rail Joint Undertaking)
    • 6.27.1. FRMCS-Related Research & Innovation Activities
  • 6.28. EUTC (European Utilities Telecom Council)
    • 6.28.1. Addressing LTE & 5G-Related Requirements for European Utilities
  • 6.29. EUWENA (European Users of Enterprise Wireless Networks Association)
    • 6.29.1. Catalyzing the Wider Adoption of 3GPP-Based Private Networks
  • 6.3. EWA (Enterprise Wireless Alliance)
    • 6.30.1. Supporting the Private Wireless Industry in the United States
  • 6.31. free5GC
    • 6.31.1. Open-Source 5GC Software
  • 6.32. GSA (Global Mobile Suppliers Association)
    • 6.32.1. Advocacy for Private Mobile Networks
  • 6.33. GSMA (GSM Association)
    • 6.33.1. Guidelines for 5G Private & Dedicated Networks
  • 6.34. GUTMA (Global UTM Association)
    • 6.34.1. ACJA (Aerial Connectivity Joint Activity) Initiative
  • 6.35. ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
    • 6.35.1. International & Regional Harmonization of LTE/5G Spectrum
    • 6.35.2. Defining the Role of IMT-2020 to Support Vertical Applications
  • 6.36. JOTS (Joint Operators Technical Specification) Forum
    • 6.36.1. NHIB (Neutral Host In-Building) Specification
  • 6.37. JRC (Joint Radio Company)
    • 6.37.1. Supporting LTE/5G-Based Smart Grid Initiatives
  • 6.38. KRRI (Korea Railroad Research Institute)
    • 6.38.1. Functional Testing & Certification of LTE-R (LTE-Based Railway Communications)
  • 6.39. LF (Linux Foundation)
    • 6.39.1. Magma Mobile Core Software Platform
    • 6.39.2. LF Networkings 5G Super Blueprint
    • 6.39.3. LF Edges Akraino Private LTE/5G ICN (Integrated Cloud-Native) Blueprint
    • 6.39.4. Other Projects Relevant to Private LTE & 5G Networks
  • 6.4. MFA (MulteFire Alliance)
    • 6.40.1. Uni5G Technology Blueprints for Private 5G Networks
    • 6.40.2. Network Identifier Program Supporting Private & Neutral Host Networks
    • 6.40.3. MulteFire Specifications: LTE Operation in Unlicensed Spectrum
    • 6.40.4. Certification Program for MulteFire Equipment
    • 6.40.5. MulteFire OSU (Online Sign-Up) System
  • 6.41. NGA (Next G Alliance)
    • 6.41.1. Building the Foundation for North American Leadership in 6G
  • 6.42. NGMN (Next-Generation Mobile Networks) Alliance
    • 6.42.1. Work Related to Private 5G & Network Slicing
  • 6.43. NSC (National Spectrum Consortium)
    • 6.43.1. Enhancing Spectrum Superiority & 5G Capabilities for Federal Users
  • 6.44. OCP (Open Compute Project) Foundation
    • 6.44.1. Initiatives Aimed at Open Designs for Telco Hardware
  • 6.45. one6G Association
    • 6.45.1. Driving 6G Innovation & Development Across Vertical Industries
  • 6.46. ONF (Open Networking Foundation)
    • 6.46.1. Aether Private 5G Connected Edge Platform
    • 6.46.2. SD-RAN, SD-Core, OMEC & Other Relevant Projects
  • 6.47. OnGo Alliance
    • 6.47.1. Promoting 4G & 5G OnGo Wireless Network Technology
    • 6.47.2. Technical Specifications & Guidelines for 4G/5G-Based CBRS Networks
    • 6.47.3. Product Certification Program Supporting Multi-Vendor Interoperability
  • 6.48. OPC Foundation
    • 6.48.1. OPC UA (Unified Architecture) Over 5G for Industry 4.0 Applications
  • 6.49. Open RAN Policy Coalition
    • 6.49.1. Promoting Policies to Drive the Adoption of Open RAN
  • 6.5. Open5GCore
    • 6.50.1. Vendor-Independent 5GC Implementation
  • 6.51. Open5GS & NextEPC
    • 6.51.1. Open-Source 5GC & EPC Software
  • 6.52. OpenInfra (Open Infrastructure) Foundation
    • 6.52.1. StarlingX Software Stack for Ultra-Low Latency Edge Applications
    • 6.52.2. OpenStack Cloud Software & Other Projects
  • 6.53. O-RAN Alliance
    • 6.53.1. O-RAN Architecture Specifications
    • 6.53.2. O-RAN SC (Software Community)
    • 6.53.3. Testing & Integration Support
  • 6.54. OSA (OpenAirInterface Software Alliance)
    • 6.54.1. OAI (OpenAirInterface) 5G RAN, Core & MOSAIC5G Projects
  • 6.55. PIA (PSBN Innovation Alliance)
    • 6.55.1. PSBN (Public Safety Broadband Network) Governance in Canadas Ontario Province
  • 6.56. PMeV (German Professional Mobile Radio Association)
    • 6.56.1. Professional Broadband & 5G Campus Network-Related Activities
  • 6.57. PSBTA (Public Safety Broadband Technology Association)
    • 6.57.1. Public Safety LTE/5G-Related Activities
  • 6.58. PSCE (Public Safety Communication Europe)
    • 6.58.1. Public Safety Broadband-Related Standardization Activities
    • 6.58.2. BroadX Projects: Pan-European Interoperable Mobile Broadband System for Public Safety
  • 6.59. Safe-Net Forum
    • 6.59.1. Technical & Policy Guidance for 3GPP-Based Critical Communications Networks
  • 6.6. SCF (Small Cell Forum)
    • 6.60.1. Reference Blueprints for Private 5G Networks
    • 6.60.2. Neutral Hosting, Edge Computing & Other Relevant Work
  • 6.61. Seamless Air Alliance
    • 6.61.1. Leading Global Standards for Inflight Connectivity
  • 6.62. SimpleRAN
    • 6.62.1. Ensuring Interoperability & Transparency in the vRAN Ecosystem
  • 6.63. srsRAN Project
    • 6.63.1. Open-Source 4G & 5G Software Suites
  • 6.64. TCA (Trusted Connectivity Alliance)
    • 6.64.1. 5G SIM/eSIM Recommendations for Private Networks
  • 6.65. TCCA (The Critical Communications Association)
    • 6.65.1. CCBG (Critical Communications Broadband Group)
    • 6.65.2. BIG (Broadband Industry Group)
    • 6.65.3. SCADA, Smart Grid & IoT Group
    • 6.65.4. Future Technologies Group
  • 6.66. techUK
    • 6.66.1. SPF (Spectrum Policy Forum)
  • 6.67. TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association)
    • 6.67.1. Defining Requirements for LMR-3GPP Interworking & Critical Broadband Capabilities
  • 6.68. TIP (Telecom Infra Project)
    • 6.68.1. 5G Private Networks Solution Group
    • 6.68.2. Neutral Host NaaS Solution Group
    • 6.68.3. OpenRAN & Open Core Network Groups
    • 6.68.4. Other Relevant Product & Solution Groups
  • 6.69. TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea)
    • 6.69.1. Standardization Efforts for 3GPP-Based Public Safety, Railway & Maritime Communications
  • 6.7. U.S. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
    • 6.70.1. Public Safety Broadband & 5G-Related R&D Initiatives
  • 6.71. U.S. NPSTC (National Public Safety Telecommunications Council)
    • 6.71.1. Leadership for LMR-3GPP Interworking & Public Safety Broadband Communications
  • 6.72. U.S. NTIA (National Telecommunications and Information Administration)
    • 6.72.1. Wireless Innovation & Supply Chain Security
  • 6.73. UBBA (Utility Broadband Alliance)
    • 6.73.1. Championing the Advancement of Private Broadband Networks for Utilities
  • 6.74. UIC (International Union of Railways)
    • 6.74.1. FRMCS Program for the Replacement of GSM-R Networks
  • 6.75. UK5G Innovation Network
    • 6.75.1. Promoting Private 5G Adoption Projects, Testbeds & Trials
  • 6.76. UNIFE (The European Rail Supply Industry Association)
    • 6.76.1. UNITEL Committee: Development & Implementation of FRMCS
  • 6.77. UTC (Utilities Technology Council)
    • 6.77.1. Private LTE & 5G-Related Advocacy, Technology Development & Policy Efforts
  • 6.78. UTCAL (Utilities Telecom & Technology Council América Latina)
    • 6.78.1. Promoting Private LTE & 5G Networks for Latin American Utilities
  • 6.79. VDMA (German Mechanical and Plant Engineering Association)
    • 6.79.1. Guidelines for 5G in Mechanical & Plant Engineering
  • 6.8. WBA (Wireless Broadband Alliance)
    • 6.80.1. 5G & Wi-Fi Convergence in Private 5G Networks
    • 6.80.2. OpenRoaming for Private LTE/5G
  • 6.81. WhiteSpace Alliance
    • 6.81.1. Promoting the Use of 3GPP, IEEE & IETF Standards for TVWS Spectrum
  • 6.82. WInnForum (Wireless Innovation Forum)
    • 6.82.1. CBRS Standards for the Implementation of FCC Rulemaking
    • 6.82.2. 6 GHz Unlicensed Sharing & Other Committees
  • 6.83. XGP (eXtended Global Platform) Forum
    • 6.83.1. Development & Promotion of the sXGP Unlicensed LTE Service
  • 6.84. Others
    • 6.84.1. Vendor-Led Private LTE/5G Alliances
    • 6.84.2. National Government Agencies & Regulators
    • 6.84.3. Regional & Country-Specific Associations
    • 6.84.4. Global Industry Initiatives & Organizations

Chapter 7: Review of Private LTE/5G Installations Worldwide

  • 7.1. North America
    • 7.1.1. United States
    • 7.1.2. Canada
  • 7.2. Asia Pacific
    • 7.2.1. Australia
    • 7.2.2. New Zealand
    • 7.2.3. China
    • 7.2.4. Hong Kong
    • 7.2.5. Taiwan
    • 7.2.6. Japan
    • 7.2.7. South Korea
    • 7.2.8. Singapore
    • 7.2.9. Malaysia
    • 7.2.10. Indonesia
    • 7.2.11. Papua New Guinea
    • 7.2.12. Philippines
    • 7.2.13. Thailand
    • 7.2.14. Vietnam
    • 7.2.15. Laos
    • 7.2.16. Myanmar
    • 7.2.17. India
    • 7.2.18. Pakistan
    • 7.2.19. Bangladesh
    • 7.2.20. Rest of Asia Pacific
  • 7.3. Europe
    • 7.3.1. United Kingdom
    • 7.3.2. Republic of Ireland
    • 7.3.3. France
    • 7.3.4. Germany
    • 7.3.5. Belgium
    • 7.3.6. Netherlands
    • 7.3.7. Switzerland
    • 7.3.8. Austria
    • 7.3.9. Italy
    • 7.3.10. Spain
    • 7.3.11. Portugal
    • 7.3.12. Sweden
    • 7.3.13. Norway
    • 7.3.14. Denmark
    • 7.3.15. Finland
    • 7.3.16. Estonia
    • 7.3.17. Czech Republic
    • 7.3.18. Poland
    • 7.3.19. Ukraine
    • 7.3.20. Latvia
    • 7.3.21. Türkiye
    • 7.3.22. Greece
    • 7.3.23. Bulgaria
    • 7.3.24. Romania
    • 7.3.25. Hungary
    • 7.3.26. Slovakia
    • 7.3.27. Slovenia
    • 7.3.28. Croatia
    • 7.3.29. Serbia
    • 7.3.30. Kosovo
    • 7.3.31. Russia
    • 7.3.32. Belarus
    • 7.3.33. Rest of Europe
  • 7.4. Middle East & Africa
    • 7.4.1. Saudi Arabia
    • 7.4.2. United Arab Emirates
    • 7.4.3. Qatar
    • 7.4.4. Oman
    • 7.4.5. Bahrain
    • 7.4.6. Kuwait
    • 7.4.7. Iraq
    • 7.4.8. Jordan
    • 7.4.9. Lebanon
    • 7.4.10. Israel
    • 7.4.11. Egypt
    • 7.4.12. Algeria
    • 7.4.13. Morocco
    • 7.4.14. Tunisia
    • 7.4.15. South Africa
    • 7.4.16. Botswana
    • 7.4.17. Zimbabwe
    • 7.4.18. Zambia
    • 7.4.19. Kenya
    • 7.4.20. Ethiopia
    • 7.4.21. Somalia
    • 7.4.22. Madagascar
    • 7.4.23. Mauritius
    • 7.4.24. Angola
    • 7.4.25. Republic of the Congo
    • 7.4.26. Gabon
    • 7.4.27. Central African Republic
    • 7.4.28. Cameroon
    • 7.4.29. Nigeria
    • 7.4.30. Ghana
    • 7.4.31. Côte dIvoire
    • 7.4.32. Mali
    • 7.4.33. Senegal
    • 7.4.34. Rest of the Middle East & Africa
  • 7.5. Latin & Central America
    • 7.5.1. Brazil
    • 7.5.2. Mexico
    • 7.5.3. Argentina
    • 7.5.4. Colombia
    • 7.5.5. Chile
    • 7.5.6. Peru
    • 7.5.7. Venezuela
    • 7.5.8. Ecuador
    • 7.5.9. Bolivia
    • 7.5.10. Dominican Republic
    • 7.5.11. Jamaica
    • 7.5.12. Barbados
    • 7.5.13. Trinidad & Tobago
    • 7.5.14. Dutch Caribbean
    • 7.5.15. Suriname
    • 7.5.16. Rest of Latin & Central America

Chapter 8: Private LTE/5G Case Studies

  • 8.1. 450connect: Nationwide 450 MHz LTE Network for the Digitization of German Energy & Water Utilities
    • 8.1.1. Operational Model
    • 8.1.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.1.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.1.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.2. ADF (Australian Defence Force): Revamping Military Training Facilities With Private Cellular Networks
    • 8.2.1. Operational Model
    • 8.2.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.2.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.2.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.3. Adif AV (Alta Velocidad): Private 5G Network for Strategic Logistics Terminals
    • 8.3.1. Operational Model
    • 8.3.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.3.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.3.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.4. Agnico Eagle Mines: Streamlining Mining Operations With Private 4G/5G Networks
    • 8.4.1. Operational Model
    • 8.4.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.4.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.4.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.5. Airport Authority Hong Kong: HKIA Public-Private 5G Infrastructure Project
    • 8.5.1. Operational Model
    • 8.5.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.5.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.5.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.6. Ameren: 900 MHz Private Communications Network for Grid Modernization
    • 8.6.1. Operational Model
    • 8.6.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.6.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.6.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.7. ANA (All Nippon Airways): Local 5G-Enabled Digital Transformation of Aviation Training
    • 8.7.1. Operational Model
    • 8.7.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.7.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.7.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.8. APM Terminals (Maersk): Revolutionizing Terminal Operations With Private 5G Networks
    • 8.8.1. Operational Model
    • 8.8.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.8.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.8.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.9. Aramco (Saudi Arabian Oil Company): Private LTE Network for Remote Oil & Gas Wells
    • 8.9.1. Operational Model
    • 8.9.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.9.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.9.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.1. ArcelorMittal: 5G Steel Project for the Digitization of Industries Sites
    • 8.10.1. Operational Model
    • 8.10.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.10.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.10.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.11. ASTRID: BLM (Blue Light Mobile) Secure MVNO Service for Belgian First Responders
    • 8.11.1. Operational Model
    • 8.11.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.11.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.11.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.12. BAM Nuttall: Accelerating Innovation at Construction Sites With Private 5G Networks
    • 8.12.1. Operational Model
    • 8.12.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.12.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.12.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.13. BlackRock: On-Premise Private 5G Network Installation for New York Global Headquarters
    • 8.13.1. Operational Model
    • 8.13.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.13.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.13.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.14. Brazilian Army: Leveraging Private LTE Infrastructure for National Defense Applications
    • 8.14.1. Operational Model
    • 8.14.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.14.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.14.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.15. BT Media & Broadcast: Portable Private 5G Networks for Live Sports Broadcasting
    • 8.15.1. Operational Model
    • 8.15.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.15.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.15.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.16. Bundeswehr (German Armed Forces): ZNV (Deployable Cellular Networks) Program
    • 8.16.1. Operational Model
    • 8.16.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.16.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.16.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.17. China National Coal Group: Multi-Band 700 MHz & 2.6 GHz Private 5G Network for Dahaize Coal Mine
    • 8.17.1. Operational Model
    • 8.17.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.17.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.17.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.18. City of Las Vegas: Municipal Private Wireless Network for Businesses, Government & Educational Institutions
    • 8.18.1. Operational Model
    • 8.18.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.18.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.18.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.19. Cologne Bonn Airport: Transforming Internal Operations With Private 5G Campus Network
    • 8.19.1. Operational Model
    • 8.19.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.19.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.19.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.2. COMAC (Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China): 5G-Connected Intelligent Aircraft Manufacturing Factories
    • 8.20.1. Operational Model
    • 8.20.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.20.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.20.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.21. ConocoPhillips: Private LTE Network for Curtis Island LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) Facility
    • 8.21.1. Operational Model
    • 8.21.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.21.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.21.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.22. CSG (China Southern Power Grid): Harnessing Private LTE & 5G Network Slicing for Smart Grid Operations
    • 8.22.1. Operational Model
    • 8.22.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.22.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.22.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.23. DB (Deutsche Bahn): Digitizing & Automating Rail Operations With 5G-Based FRMCS
    • 8.23.1. Operational Model
    • 8.23.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.23.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.23.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.24. Dongyi Group Coal Gasification Company: Hybrid Public-Private Network for Xinyan Coal Mine
    • 8.24.1. Operational Model
    • 8.24.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.24.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.24.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.25. Dow: Modernizing Chemical Plant Maintenance With Private Cellular Networks
    • 8.25.1. Operational Model
    • 8.25.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.25.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.25.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.26. EAN (European Aviation Network): Hybrid Satellite-A2G Network for Inflight Broadband
    • 8.26.1. Operational Model
    • 8.26.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.26.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.26.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.27. Edesur Dominicana: Custom-Built 2.3 GHz LTE Network for Critical Grid Communications
    • 8.27.1. Operational Model
    • 8.27.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.27.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.27.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.28. EDF: Private Mobile Networks for Enhanced Connectivity at Nuclear Power Plants & Wind Farms
    • 8.28.1. Operational Model
    • 8.28.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.28.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.28.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.29. Enel: Global 3GPP-Based Private Wireless Communications Platform for Utility Communications
    • 8.29.1. Operational Model
    • 8.29.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.29.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.29.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.3. ESN (Emergency Services Network): Great Britains Critical Communications Broadband System
    • 8.30.1. Operational Model
    • 8.30.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.30.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.30.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.31. Estonian Ministry of Defense: Private 5G Network for CR14 (Cyber Range 14)
    • 8.31.1. Operational Model
    • 8.31.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.31.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.31.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.32. Evergy: Facilitating Grid Modernization With Private Broadband Network
    • 8.32.1. Operational Model
    • 8.32.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.32.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.32.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.33. EWA (Electricity and Water Authority, Bahrain): 410 MHz Private LTE Network
    • 8.33.1. Operational Model
    • 8.33.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.33.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.33.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.34. Ferrovial: Standalone Private 5G Network for the Silvertown Tunnel Project
    • 8.34.1. Operational Model
    • 8.34.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.34.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.34.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.35. FirstNet (First Responder Network): United States Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network
    • 8.35.1. Operational Model
    • 8.35.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.35.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.35.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.36. Fraport: Private 5G Campus Network for Future-Oriented Operations at Frankfurt Airport
    • 8.36.1. Operational Model
    • 8.36.2. Spectrum Type
    • 8.36.3. Integrators & Suppliers
    • 8.36.4. Deployment Summary
  • 8.37. Gale South Beach Hotel: CBRS Network for G

    List Of Tables

     


    List Of Figures

    List of Figures

    • Figure 1: Minimum Performance Requirements for 5G Systems
    • Figure 2: NSA (Non-Standalone) vs. SA (Standalone) 5G Deployment Modes
    • Figure 3: Isolated NPN (Non-Public Network) Deployment Scenario
    • Figure 4: Dedicated Mobile Operator RAN Coverage NPN Deployment Scenario
    • Figure 5: Shared RAN With On-Premise Core NPN Deployment Scenario
    • Figure 6: Shared RAN & Control Plane NPN Deployment Scenario
    • Figure 7: NPN Hosted by Public Network Deployment Scenario
    • Figure 8: Virtual Sliced Private Network Deployment Scenario
    • Figure 9: Hybrid Public-Private Network Deployment Scenario
    • Figure 10: Shared Core Private Network Deployment Scenario
    • Figure 11: Secure MVNO (Mobile Virtual Network Operator) Deployment Scenario
    • Figure 12: Business Models for Private LTE & 5G Networks
    • Figure 13: Value Chain of Private LTE & 5G Networks
    • Figure 14: Private LTE/5G Network Architecture
    • Figure 15: 5G NG-RAN Architecture
    • Figure 16: eNB/gNB RU (Radio Unit) Functional Elements
    • Figure 17: eNB/gNB DU (Distributed Baseband Unit) Functional Elements
    • Figure 18: eNB/gNB CU (Centralized Baseband Unit) Functional Elements
    • Figure 19: 5GC (5G Core) Architecture
    • Figure 20: Fronthaul, Midhaul & Backhaul Transport Network Segments
    • Figure 21: 5G Transport Performance Requirements
    • Figure 22: Distance & RTT (Round-Trip Time) Comparison Between Public & Private Edge Computing
    • Figure 23: Standardization of Private LTE/5G-Related Features in 3GPP Releases 11 - 18
    • Figure 24: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Infrastructure Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 25: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 26: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 27: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 28: Global Private LTE & 5G Base Station RU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 29: Global Private LTE & 5G Base Station RU Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 30: Global Private LTE & 5G DU/CU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 31: Global Private LTE & 5G DU/CU Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 32: Global Private LTE & 5G Mobile Core Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 33: Global Private LTE & 5G Mobile Core User Plane Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 34: Global Private LTE & 5G Mobile Core Control Plane Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 35: Global Private LTE & 5G Transport Network Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 36: Global Private LTE & 5G Fiber-Wireline Transport Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 37: Global Private LTE & 5G Microwave Transport Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 38: Global Private LTE & 5G Satellite Transport Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 39: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by Technology Generation: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 40: Global Private LTE Network Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 41: Global Private LTE RAN Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 42: Global Private LTE EPC Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 43: Global Private LTE Transport Network Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 44: Global Private 5G Network Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 45: Global Private 5G RAN Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 46: Global Private 5GC Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 47: Global Private 5G Transport Network Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 48: Global Private LTE & 5G RU Shipments by Cell Size: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 49: Global Private LTE & 5G RU Revenue by Cell Size: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 50: Global Private LTE & 5G Indoor Small Cell RU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 51: Global Private LTE & 5G Indoor Small Cell RU Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 52: Global Private LTE & 5G Outdoor Small Cell RU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 53: Global Private LTE & 5G Outdoor Small Cell RU Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 54: Global Private LTE & 5G Macrocell RU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 55: Global Private LTE & 5G Macrocell RU Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 56: Global Private LTE & 5G RU Shipments by Spectrum Licensing Model: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 57: Global Private LTE & 5G RU Revenue by Spectrum Licensing Model: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 58: Global Mobile Operator-Owned Spectrum Private LTE & 5G RU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 59: Global Mobile Operator-Owned Spectrum Private LTE & 5G RU Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 60: Global Wide Area Licensed Spectrum Private LTE & 5G RU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 61: Global Wide Area Licensed Spectrum Private LTE & 5G RU Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 62: Global Shared & Local Area Licensed Spectrum Private LTE & 5G RU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 63: Global Shared & Local Area Licensed Spectrum Private LTE & 5G RU Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 64: Global Unlicensed Spectrum Private LTE & 5G RU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 65: Global Unlicensed Spectrum Private LTE & 5G RU Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 66: Global Private LTE & 5G RU Shipments by Frequency Range: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 67: Global Private LTE & 5G RU Revenue by Frequency Range: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 68: Global Low-Band (Sub-1 GHz) Private LTE & 5G RU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 69: Global Low-Band (Sub-1 GHz) Private LTE & 5G RU Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 70: Global Mid-Band (1-6 GHz) Private LTE & 5G RU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 71: Global Mid-Band (1-6 GHz) Private LTE & 5G RU Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 72: Global High-Band (mmWave) Private LTE & 5G RU Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 73: Global High-Band (mmWave) Private LTE & 5G RU Revenue: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 74: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Infrastructure Revenue by End User Market: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 75: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Infrastructure Revenue by Vertical Industry: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 76: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in Vertical Industries by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 77: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in Vertical Industries: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 78: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Agriculture Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 79: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Agriculture Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 80: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Aviation Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 81: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Aviation Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 82: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Broadcasting Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 83: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Broadcasting Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 84: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Construction Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 85: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Construction Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 86: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Education Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 87: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Education Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 88: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Forestry Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 89: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Forestry Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 90: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Healthcare Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 91: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Healthcare Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 92: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Manufacturing Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 93: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Manufacturing Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 94: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Military Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 95: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Military Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 96: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Mining Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 97: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Mining Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 98: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Oil & Gas Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 99: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Oil & Gas Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 100: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Ports & Maritime Transport Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 101: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Ports & Maritime Transport Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 102: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Public Safety Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 103: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Public Safety Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 104: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Railways Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 105: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Railways Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 106: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in the Utilities Vertical by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 107: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in the Utilities Vertical: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 108: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in Other Verticals by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 109: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in Other Verticals: 2023 - 2030
    • Figure 110: Global Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue in Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 111: Global Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments in Offices, Buildings & Corporate Campuses: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 112: Private LTE & 5G Network Infrastructure Revenue by Region: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 113: North America Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 114: North America Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 115: North America Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by End User Market: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 116: North America Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by Vertical Industry: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 117: Asia Pacific Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 118: Asia Pacific Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 119: Asia Pacific Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by End User Market: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 120: Asia Pacific Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by Vertical Industry: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 121: Europe Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 122: Europe Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 123: Europe Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by End User Market: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 124: Europe Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by Vertical Industry: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 125: Middle East & Africa Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 126: Middle East & Africa Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 127: Middle East & Africa Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by End User Market: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 128: Middle East & Africa Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by Vertical Industry: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 129: Latin & Central America Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by Infrastructure Submarket: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 130: Latin & Central America Private LTE & 5G RAN Unit Shipments: 2023 - 2030 (Thousands of Units)
    • Figure 131: Latin & Central America Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by End User Market: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 132: Latin & Central America Private LTE & 5G Network Revenue by Vertical Industry: 2023 - 2030 ($ Million)
    • Figure 133: Global Spending on Private LTE & 5G Networks for Vertical Industries by Technology Generation: 2023 - 2026 ($ Million)
    • Figure 134: Future Roadmap of Private LTE & 5G Networks: 2023 - 2030

    List of Companies Mentioned:

    • 10T Tech
    • 1NCE
    • 1oT
    • 29Metals
    • 3D-P
    • 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project)
    • 450 MHz Alliance
    • 450connect
    • 4K Solutions
    • 4RF
    • 5G Campus Network Alliance
    • 5G Forum (South Korea)
    • 5G Health Association
    • 5G Media Initiative
    • 5G OI Lab (5G Open Innovation Lab)
    • 5GAA (5G Automotive Association)
    • 5G-ACIA (5G Alliance for Connected Industries and Automation)
    • 5GAIA (5G Applications Industry Array)
    • 5GCT (5G Catalyst Technologies)
    • 5GDNA (5G Deterministic Networking Alliance)
    • 5GFF (5G Future Forum)
    • 5G-MAG (5G Media Action Group)
    • 5GMF (Fifth Generation Mobile Communication Promotion Forum, Japan)
    • 5GSA (5G Slicing Association)
    • 6G Finland
    • 6GEM Consortium
    • 6G-IA (6G Smart Networks and Services Industry Association)
    • 6G-RIC (Research and Innovation Cluster)
    • 6Harmonics/6WiLInk
    • 6WIND
    • 7Layers
    • 7P (Seven Principles)
    • A Beep/Diga-Talk+
    • A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore)
    • A1 Hrvatska
    • A1 Telekom Austria Group
    • A10 Networks
    • A5G Networks
    • AAEON Technology
    • Aalborg University
    • Aalto University
    • AAR (Association of American Railroads)
    • Aarna Networks
    • ABB
    • ABB Robotics
    • ABDI (Brazilian Agency for Industrial Development)
    • ABEL Mobilfunk
    • ABiT Corporation
    • ABP (Associated British Ports)
    • ABS
    • Abside Networks
    • Abu Dhabi Police
    • Accedian
    • AccelerComm
    • Accelink Technologies
    • Accelleran
    • Accenture
    • ACCESS CO.
    • Access Spectrum
    • Accesso
    • AccessParks
    • ACCF (Australasian Critical Communications Forum)
    • Accton Technology Corporation
    • Accuver
    • ACE Technologies
    • AceAxis
    • AceTel (Ace Solutions)
    • Achronix Semiconductor Corporation
    • ACMA (Australian Communications and Media Authority)
    • ACOME
    • ACPS (Albemarle County Public Schools)
    • ACS (Applied Computer Solutions)
    • Actelis Networks
    • Actemium (VINCI Energies)
    • Action Technologies (Shenzhen Action Technologies)
    • Actiontec Electronics
    • Active911
    • Actus Networks
    • AD Plastik
    • Adani Data Networks
    • Adani Group
    • Adax
    • Adcor Magnet Systems
    • Addis Ababa Light Rail
    • Adecoagro
    • Adelaide Airport
    • Adeunis
    • ADF (Australian Defence Force)
    • ADI (Analog Devices, Inc.)
    • Adif (Spanish Railway Infrastructure Administrator)
    • Adif AV (Alta Velocidad)
    • ADLINK Technology
    • ADMIE/IPTO (Independent Power Transmission Operator, Greece)
    • ADNOC (Abu Dhabi National Oil Company)
    • ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies)
    • ADT
    • Adtran
    • ADVA
    • Advanced Energy Industries
    • AdvanceTec Industries
    • Advantech
    • Advantech Wireless Technologies
    • AE Aerospace
    • AECC (Aero Engine Corporation of China)
    • AECC Commercial Aircraft Engine Company
    • AEG
    • Aegex Technologies
    • Aerial Applications
    • Aeris
    • Aero Wireless Group
    • AeroFarms
    • AeroMobile Communications
    • Aerostar International
    • Aethertek
    • Aetna Group
    • AFC (Asian Football Confederation)
    • Affarii Technologies
    • Affirmed Networks
    • AFL Global
    • AFRY
    • AGC
    • AGCO Corporation
    • AGCOM (Communications Regulatory Authority, Italy)
    • Agile (Agile Interoperable Solutions)
    • AGIS (Advanced Ground Information Systems)
    • AGM Mobile
    • Agnico Eagle Mines
    • AG-Placid
    • AgriFood Connect
    • Agroamb
    • Aguas de Valencia
    • AGURRE (Association of Major Users of Operational Radio Networks, France)
    • AH NET (MVM NET)
    • AI-LINK
    • AINA Wireless
    • Air China
    • Air France
    • Airband Community Internet
    • Airbus
    • Airfide Networks
    • Airgain
    • AirHop Communications
    • Airlinq
    • Airport Authority Hong Kong
    • Airspan Networks
    • Airtower Networks
    • Airwaive
    • Airwave Developers
    • Airwave Solutions
    • Airwavz Solutions
    • AIS (Advanced Info Service)
    • AiVader
    • Ajman Police
    • Akamai Technologies
    • Aker Solutions
    • AKIS International
    • AKOS (Agency for Communication Networks and Services of the Republic of Slovenia)
    • Akoustis Technologies
    • Alaska Airlines
    • Alaxala Networks Corporation
    • ALBEDO Telecom
    • Albemarle Corporation
    • albis-elcon
    • ALBO (Hijos de Carlos Albo)
    • Alcadis
    • Alcatel-Lucent International
    • Alcobendas City Council
    • Aldenhoven Testing Center
    • ALE (Antarctic Logistics & Expeditions)
    • Alea
    • Alef (Alef Edge)
    • Alepo
    • Alestra
    • Alibaba Group
    • Aliniant
    • Allbesmart
    • Allen Vanguard Wireless
    • Allerio
    • Alliander
    • Allied Telesis
    • Allot
    • Alnan Aluminium
    • Alpha Networks
    • Alpha Wireless
    • Alphabet
    • Alsa
    • Alsatis Réseaux
    • Alstom
    • Altaeros
    • Altair Semiconductor (Sony Semiconductor Israel)
    • ALTAN Redes
    • Altice Group
    • Altice Labs
    • Altice Portugal
    • Altiostar
    • ALVIS (Argentina)
    • AM Telecom
    • AMA XpertEye
    • AMAGGI
    • Amantya Technologies
    • Amarisoft
    • Amata Corporation
    • Amazon
    • Ambra Solutions-ECOTEL
    • Ambulance Victoria
    • Ambulancezorg Groningen
    • AMD (Advanced Micro Devices)
    • Amdocs
    • Ameren
    • América Móvil
    • American Tower Corporation
    • AMI (American Megatrends International)
    • AMIT Wireless
    • AMN (Africa Mobile Networks)
    • AMPC (Australian Meat Processor Corporation)
    • Ampere Computing
    • Amphenol Corporation
    • Ampleon
    • Amtele Communication
    • ANA (All Nippon Airways)
    • ANACOM (National Communications Authority, Portugal)
    • Anatel (National Telecommunications Agency, Brazil)
    • ANAX Metals
    • ANCOM (National Authority for Management and Regulation in Communications, Romania)
    • Andesat
    • ANDEX (Sendai)
    • ANDRA
    • ANDRO Computational Solutions
    • Anek Lines
    • Anglo American
    • AngloGold Ashanti
    • Angola Telecom
    • Angolan Ministry of Interior
    • Anhui Conch Cement
    • Anktion (Fujian) Technology
    • Anokiwave
    • Anritsu
    • ANS (Advanced Network Services)
    • Anshan Iron & Steel Group
    • Antenna Company
    • Anterix
    • Antna Antenna Technology
    • Antofagasta Minerals
    • Antwerp Police
    • Antwerp-Bruges Port Authority
    • Aorotech
    • AOT (Airports of Thailand)
    • APA Group
    • APBA (Port Authority of Algeciras Bay)
    • APCO (Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials) International
    • Apex Technology Group
    • APH (Huelva Port Authority)
    • API (American Petroleum Institute)
    • APM Terminals (Maersk)
    • APN (All Purpose Networks)
    • APPA (American Public Power Association)
    • Apple
    • Applus+ IDIADA
    • APRESIA Systems
    • APSTAR (APT Satellite Company)
    • APT (Asia Pacific Telecom)
    • APTEL (Association of Proprietary Infrastructure and Private Telecommunications Systems Companies, Brazil)
    • aql
    • Aqualia
    • Aquila (Suzhou Aquila Solutions)
    • Aqura Technologies
    • ARA (American Rally Association)
    • Arabsat
    • Aramco (Saudi Arabian Oil Company)
    • Aramco Digital
    • ARBURG
    • Arcadyan Technology Corporation
    • Arçelik
    • ArcelorMittal
    • ARCEP (Regulatory Authority for Electronic Communications and Posts, France)
    • Archos
    • ARCIA (Australian Radio and Communications Industry Association)
    • Ardea Resources
    • Arete M
    • AREU (Lombardy Regional Emergency Service Agency)
    • AREX (Airport Railroad Express)
    • Argela
    • Argentine Federal Police
    • ArgoNET
    • Aria Networks
    • ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan)
    • Arista Networks
    • Arizona National Guard
    • Arkessa
    • Arm
    • Armasuisse (Federal Office for Defense Procurement, Switzerland)
    • Armour Communications
    • ARQ Group
    • Arqit Quantum
    • ArrayComm (Chengdu ArrayComm Wireless Technologies)
    • Arrcus
    • Arrow Energy
    • ARTC (Australian Rail Track Corporation)
    • Artemis Networks
    • Artemis Resources
    • Artiza Networks
    • Aruba
    • Arubaito World
    • Arukona
    • Arvato Supply Chain Solutions
    • Arvato Supply Chain Solutions
    • Asagao TV
    • Asahikawa Cable Television
    • Asavie
    • ASE Group
    • ASELSAN
    • AsiaInfo Technologies
    • AsiaSat (Asia Satellite Telecommunications Company)
    • Askey Computer Corporation
    • ASM Global
    • ASN (Alcatel Submarine Networks)
    • ASOCS
    • Aspire Technology
    • Aspire Technology Partners
    • ASR Microelectronics
    • Asseco CEIT
    • Assumption University of Thailand
    • Assured Wireless Corporation
    • AST SpaceMobile
    • ASTELLA (Astella Technologies)
    • ASTOR (Poland)
    • ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute)
    • ASTRID
    • ASU (Arizona State University)
    • ASUS (ASUSTeK Computer)
    • Asylon
    • AT (Auckland Transport)
    • AT&T
    • ATDI
    • ATEL (Asiatelco Technologies)
    • Atel Antennas
    • Atesio
    • Athens International Airport
    • Athonet
    • ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
    • ATL (A Test Lab)
    • Atlas Copco
    • Atlas Iron
    • Atlas Telecom
    • AtLink Services
    • ATN International
    • Atos
    • ATP (Andean Telecom Partners)
    • Atrinet
    • ATS Elektronik
    • Attabotics
    • AttoCore
    • ATW Investment & Services
    • Auberge Resorts
    • Auckland Westpac Rescue Helicopter
    • Auden Techno
    • Audi
    • audius
    • Auray Technology
    • Aurens (Orrence)
    • Aurora Flight Sciences
    • Aurora Insight
    • Ausgrid
    • Australia Pacific LNG
    • Australian Department of Home Affairs
    • Australian Productivity Commission
    • AUTC (Africa Utilities Technology Council)
    • Automotive Campus (Helmond)
    • AV Living Lab
    • Avanade
    • Avangrid
    • Avanti Communications
    • Avari Wireless
    • Avesha Systems
    • AVEVA
    • AVI
    • Aviat Networks
    • Avics
    • Avidyne Corporation
    • Avinor
    • Avionica
    • Avista Edge
    • AVIWEST
    • AVM
    • AW2S (Advanced Wireless Solutions and Services)
    • AWS (Amazon Web Services)
    • AWTG
    • AWWA (American Water Works Association)
    • Axell Wireless
    • AXESS Networks
    • Axians
    • Axiata Group
    • Axione
    • Axis Communications
    • Axon
    • Axpo WZ-Systems
    • Axtel
    • Axxcelera Broadband Wireless
    • Axxcss Wireless Solutions
    • Azcom Technology
    • Azetti Networks
    • B&R Bouwgroep
    • B+B SmartWorx
    • b<>com (IRT b-com)
    • B5GPC (Beyond 5G Promotion Consortium)
    • BABS/FOCP (Federal Office for Civil Protection, Switzerland)
    • Badger Technologies (Jabil)
    • BAE Systems
    • Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation
    • Bahia State Secretariat of Public Security
    • Bahrain Airport Company
    • BAI Communications/Boldyn Networks
    • Baicells
    • BAKOM/OFCOM (Federal Office of Communications, Switzerland)
    • Baleària
    • Ball Aerospace
    • Ballast Networks
    • Balluff
    • Baltic Networks
    • BAM Nuttall (Royal BAM Group)
    • Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute
    • Banco Santander
    • BandRich
    • BandwidthX
    • Bangladesh SSF (Special Security Force)
    • Bangs Ambulance
    • Baogang Group
    • Baoshan Iron & Steel
    • Baosteel Group
    • Barcelona City Council
    • Barcelona Port Authority
    • Barich
    • Barrett Communications
    • BART (San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District)
    • BARTEC
    • Baruch Padeh Medical Center
    • BASF
    • Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council
    • Batchfire Resources
    • Batelco
    • BATM Advanced Communications
    • BATS Wireless (Broadband Antenna Tracking Systems)
    • Bavaria Studios & Production Services
    • Bay Minette Police Department
    • Bayer
    • BAYFU (Bayerische Funknetz)
    • Baylin Technologies
    • BayRICS (Bay Area Regional Interoperable Communications Systems Authority)
    • BBB (BB Backbone Corporation)
    • BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation)
    • BBF (Brasil BioFuels)
    • BBK Electronics
    • BBVA (Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria)
    • BC Hydro
    • BCA (Building and Construction Authority, Singapore)
    • BCDVideo
    • BDBOS (Federal Agency for Public Safety Digital Radio, Germany)
    • Beach Energy
    • Beacon Minerals
    • Beagle Systems
    • Beam Semiconductor
    • Beam Wireless
    • Beamlink
    • BearCom
    • BEC Technologies
    • Becker Mining Systems
    • Beckhoff Automation
    • becon
    • Beeline Kazakhstan
    • Beeline Russia (VimpelCom)
    • Beep
    • Beeper Communications
    • Beijer Electronics Group
    • Beijing Capital International Airport
    • Beijing Chaoyang Hospital
    • Beijing Daxing International Airport
    • Beijing MTR Corporation
    • BELAZ
    • Belden
    • Belfast Harbour
    • BelFone
    • Bell Canada
    • Bellantenna
    • Belpre City Schools
    • Benetel
    • Berief Food
    • BesoVideo
    • Betacom
    • BH Technologies
    • Bharti Airtel
    • BHE (Bonn Hungary Electronics)
    • BHP
    • Biazi Telecom
    • BICS
    • Bilbao Metro
    • Billion Electric
    • BinnenBereik
    • BIPT (Belgian Institute for Postal Services and Telecommunications)
    • Bird Technologies
    • Birmingham City Council
    • BISDN (Berlin Institute for Software Defined Networks)
    • Bittium
    • BK Technologies
    • Black & Veatch
    • Black Box
    • BlackBerry
    • Blackned
    • BlackRock
    • BLiNQ Networks
    • Blu Wireless
    • Blue Arcus Technologies
    • Blue Danube Systems
    • Blue White Robotics
    • Blue Wireless
    • Bluebird
    • Blueforce Development Corporation
    • BLUnet Schweiz
    • BMA (BHP Mitsubishi Alliance)
    • BMRCL (Bengaluru Metro Rail Corporation)
    • BMS (Bristol-Myers Squibb)
    • BMW Brilliance Automotive
    • BMW Group
    • BMWK (Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action)
    • BNetzA (Federal Network Agency, Germany)
    • BNPB (National Agency for Disaster Management, Indonesia)
    • BNU (Beijing Normal University)
    • Bobcat Miner
    • BOCHK (Bank of China Hong Kong)
    • Boeing
    • Boelink (Shanghai Boelink Communication Technology)
    • Boingo Wireless
    • Boise Police Department
    • Boliden
    • Bombardier
    • Bombers de Barcelona (Barcelona Fire Service)
    • Bonn Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences
    • BoomGrow
    • Booz Allen Hamilton
    • Borealis
    • BorgWarner
    • Bosch Rexroth
    • Boskalis Subsea Services
    • Boston Dynamics
    • Boston Police Department
    • Boston Scientific Corporation
    • Botkin Hospital
    • Botswana Police Service
    • Bouygues Telecom
    • Boxchip
    • BP
    • BPA (Busan Port Authority)
    • BR (Bayerischer Rundfunk)
    • BrainNet Consultants
    • Branch Communications
    • Bravis Hospital
    • BravoCom
    • Bravus Mining & Resources
    • Brazil Federal District Military Police
    • Brazilian Army
    • Bredengen
    • Bridgestone Corporation
    • Brimbank City Council
    • Brisanet
    • Bristol Port Company
    • British Army
    • British Sugar
    • Brittany Ferries
    • Broadcom
    • BroadForward
    • Broadmobi (Shanghai Broadmobi Communication Technology)
    • Broadpeak
    • Broadtech
    • Brussels Airport Company
    • BSNL (Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited)
    • BT Group
    • BT Media & Broadcast
    • Btel (Bakrie Telecom)
    • BTG (Dutch Association of Large-Scale ICT & Telecommunications Users)
    • BTI Wireless
    • BTP (Brasil Terminal Portuário)
    • B-TrunC (Broadband Trunking Communication) Industry Alliance
    • BTU (Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg)
    • Buenos Aires City Police
    • Builder [X]
    • Bulgarian Ministry of Interior
    • Bullitt Mobile
    • Bumicom Telecommunicatie
    • Bundeswehr (German Armed Forces)
    • Bundeswehr University Munich
    • Bureau Veritas
    • Burlington Fire Department
    • Burns & McDonnell
    • Busan Transportation Corporation
    • Butachimie
    • BVSD (Boulder Valley School District)
    • BVSystems (Berkeley Varitronics Systems)
    • BWT (BlueWaveTel)
    • BYD
    • B-Yond
    • C Spire
    • C Squared Systems
    • CABGOC (Cabinda Gulf Oil Company)
    • Cable Media Waiwai
    • Cable Television Toyama
    • CableFree (Wireless Excellence)
    • CableLabs
    • Cáceres City Council
    • CACI International
    • Cadence Design Systems
    • CAICT (China Academy of Information and Communications Technology)
    • CaixaBank (Formerly Bankia)
    • Cal Poly (California Polytechnic State University)
    • CalAmp
    • CalChip Connect
    • Calgary Police Service
    • Caliber Public Safety
    • California National Guard
    • California State University, Stanislaus
    • Calix
    • Callio Pyhäjärvi
    • Calnex Solutions
    • Calpak
    • Caltta Technologies
    • Cambium Networks
    • Cambridge Consultants
    • CAMET (China Association of Metros)
    • Campbell Union School District
    • CampusGenius
    • Camtel (Cameroon Telecommunications)
    • Canadian Army
    • Canoga Perkins
    • Canon
    • Canonical
    • Capgemini
    • Capgemini Engineering
    • Capgemini Invent
    • CapitaLand
    • Capricorn Metals
    • CapX Nederland
    • Carbyne
    • Cargotec
    • Carlson Wireless Technologies
    • Carnegie Mellon University
    • Carnival Corporation
    • Casa Systems
    • CASCO Signal
    • CASIC (China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation)
    • Casio Computer Company
    • Castleberry ISD (Independent School District)
    • Castor Marine
    • CATA (Canadian Advanced Technology Alliance)
    • Catalyst Communications Technologies
    • Caterpillar
    • Cavli Wireless
    • CBA (Chinese Basketball Association)
    • CBA (Commonwealth Bank of Australia)
    • CBNG (Cambridge Broadband Networks Group)
    • CCI (Communication Components Inc.)
    • CCMA (Catalan Broadcasting Corporation)
    • CCN (Cirrus Core Networks)
    • CCSA (China Communications Standards Association)
    • CCww (Communications Consultants Worldwide)
    • CDA (Chicago Department of Aviation)
    • CDE Lightband
    • CDOT (Colorado Department of Transportation)
    • CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission)
    • CEA-Leti
    • CEA-List
    • Cegeka
    • CeLa Link Corporation
    • Celfinet
    • CellAntenna Corporation
    • Cellcom (Israel)
    • Cellcomm Solutions
    • Cellient
    • Celling 5G
    • CellMax Technologies
    • Cellnex Telecom
    • CELLocity (RF Connect)
    • CellOnyx
    • Cellwize
    • cellXica
    • cellXion
    • Celona
    • CelPlan Technologies
    • Cemig (Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais)
    • Centerline Communications
    • CENTRA Technology
    • Central Petroleum
    • CentralSquare Technologies
    • Centria University of Applied Sciences
    • Centrica Storage
    • CEPRI (China Electric Power Research Institute)
    • Cepsa
    • CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)
    • Ceragon Networks
    • Cerillion
    • CERTI Foundation
    • CertusNet
    • CETC (China Electronics Technology Group Corporation)
    • CEVA
    • CGI
    • Ch4lke Mobile
    • Challenge Networks
    • Chalmers University of Technology
    • Changchun Rail Transit
    • Changsha Metro
    • ChannelPorts
    • Charge Enterprises
    • Charité University Hospital Berlin
    • Charter Communications
    • Chat Mobility
    • Cheerzing (Xiamen Cheerzing IoT Technology)
    • Chelton
    • Chemring Technology Solutions
    • Chengdu Metro
    • Chengdu NTS
    • Chevron Corporation
    • Chicago Police Department
    • Chicony Electronics
    • China All Access
    • China Baowu Steel Group
    • China Broadnet (CBN - China Broadcasting Network)
    • China Merchants Group
    • China Merchants Heavy Industries
    • China Mobile
    • China Mobile Hong Kong
    • China National Coal Group
    • China Nuclear Power Engineering
    • China Railway (China State Railway Group)
    • China Satcom (China Satellite Communications)
    • China Shenhua Energy
    • China Southern Airlines
    • China Telecom
    • China Unicom
    • China West Airport Group
    • China-Japan Friendship Hospital
    • CHN Energy (China Energy Investment Group)
    • Choice NTUA Wireless
    • Chongqing Guoyuan Port
    • Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport
    • Chongqing Rail Transit
    • CHU Rennes (Rennes University Hospital)
    • CHU Toulouse (Toulouse University Hospital)
    • Chubu Electric Power Company
    • Chukai Cable Television System Operator
    • Chulabhorn Hospital
    • Chulalongkorn University
    • Chunghwa Telecom
    • Cibicom
    • CICPA (Critical Infrastructure and Coastal Protection Authority, UAE)
    • CICT - China Information and Communication Technology Group (China Xinke Group)
    • CIE Automotive
    • Cielo Networks
    • Ciena Corporation
    • CIG (Cambridge Industries Group)
    • Cincinnati Police Department
    • CIO (Connected IO)
    • CircleGx
    • Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya
    • Circuit Parcmotor Castellolí
    • Cirpack
    • Cirtek Holdings Philippines Corporation
    • Cisco Systems
    • CITIC Pacific Mining
    • CITIG (Canadian Interoperability Technology Interest Group)
    • CITRA (Communication and Information Technology Regulatory Authority, Kuwait)
    • Citrosuco
    • City of Las Vegas
    • City of Tucson
    • Citycom Telekommunikation (Holding Graz)
    • Citymesh
    • CitySwitch
    • CJ Group
    • CJ OliveNetworks
    • CK Hutchison
    • CKH IOD
    • Clair Global
    • Claro Brasil
    • Claro Colombia
    • Clarus Networks Group
    • Clavister
    • Clear Channel UK
    • ClearBlade
    • ClearSky Technologies
    • Cleura
    • Cleveland Clinic
    • Cleveland Police
    • Clever Logic
    • Clinical Mobility (Intellicom)
    • CloudMile
    • CloudMinds
    • Clovity
    • CLP Power Hong Kong
    • CMG (China Media Group)
    • CMHIT (China Merchants Holdings Information Technology)
    • CMIG (China Minsheng Investment Group)
    • CMIoT (China Mobile IoT)
    • CMOC Group
    • CMP (Compañía Minera del Pacífico)
    • CMPort (China Merchants Port Holdings)
    • CMU (Chiang Mai University)
    • CN (Canadian National Railway Company)
    • CNA (Cable Networks Akita)
    • CNCi (Community Network Center Inc.)
    • CNI Sales
    • CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation)
    • CNOOC (China National Offshore Oil Corporation)
    • Cobham
    • COCUS
    • Codan Communications
    • Codelco (National Copper Corporation of Chile)
    • Codium Networks
    • Cogisys
    • Cognizant
    • Cohere Technologies
    • Coherent Logix
    • Cohort
    • Coiler Corporation
    • Collinear Networks
    • Collins Aerospace
    • Cologne Bonn Airport
    • Color Line
    • Colorado Parks and Wildlife
    • Colt Canada
    • Colt Technology Services
    • Colusa County Office of Education
    • Com4
    • COMAC (Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China)
    • Comander
    • Comarch
    • Comau
    • Comba Telecom
    • Combain Mobile
    • Combitech
    • Comcast Business
    • Comcast Corporation
    • Comcores
    • Comfone
    • Comilog
    • COMLAB
    • CommAgility
    • CommandWear Systems
    • Commercis
    • Commnet Wireless
    • Comms International/TecWise
    • Comms365
    • CommScope
    • Compal Electronics
    • Comprod
    • Comptek Technologies
    • ComReg (Commission for Communications Regulation, Ireland)
    • Comrod Communication Group
    • Coms4Grid
    • Comsol (South Africa)
    • COMSovereign
    • Comtech Telecommunications Corporation
    • Comtest Wireless
    • Comtrend Corporation
    • Comviva
    • Con Edison (Consolidated Edison)
    • CONET Technologies
    • CONEXIO Corporation
    • CONGIV
    • Conigital
    • Connect Tech
    • Connect44 Group
    • Connected Farms (Australia)
    • Connectivity Wireless Solutions
    • ConocoPhillips
    • Consolidated Minerals
    • Contela
    • Continental
    • Continual
    • Contour Networks
    • Coolpad
    • Coopavel
    • CopaSAT
    • Copel (Companhia Paranaense de Energia)
    • Core Lithium
    • coreNOC
    • Cornerstone (CTIL)
    • Cornet Technology
    • Corning
    • Correos
    • Cortina Access
    • Corum Group (DTEK Energy)
    • COSCO Group
    • COSCO Shipping Heavy Industry
    • COSCO Shipping Ports
    • Cosemi Technologies
    • COSMOTE
    • Cosumnes Fire Department
    • COTA (Circuit of The Americas)
    • Council Rock
    • County of Renfrew Paramedic Service
    • Coventry University
    • Covestro
    • Coweaver
    • Cox Communications
    • CP Communications
    • CPFL Energia
    • CPI (Center for Process Innovation)
    • CPQD (Center for Research and Development in Telecommunications, Brazil)
    • CR (China Resources) Cement
    • CR Gas (China Resources Gas Group)
    • CRA (Communications Regulatory Authority, Qatar)
    • Cradlepoint
    • CRC (Communications Research Centre Canada)
    • Creanord
    • CrisisGo
    • CritiComms
    • CROSSCALL
    • Crown Castle International Corporation
    • CRSC (China Railway Signal & Communication Corporation)
    • CRTVG (Corporación Radio e Televisión de Galicia)
    • CS Corporation
    • CSA (Canadian Space Agency)
    • CSC (China Steel Corporation)
    • CSCEC (China State Construction Engineering Corporation)
    • CSG (China Southern Power Grid)
    • CSG Systems International
    • CSSC (China State Shipbuilding Corporation)
    • CSSG (China Space Sanjiang Group)
    • CST (Communications, Space & Technology Commission, Saudi Arabia)
    • CTAG (Automotive Technology Center of Galicia)
    • CTC (Chubu Telecommunications Company)
    • CTC (ITOCHU Techno-Solutions)
    • CTG (Celestia Technologies Group)
    • CTIA
    • CTK (Carl-Thiem Hospital Cottbus)
    • CTPA (Central Texas Purchasing Alliance)
    • CTR (Central Corporation)
    • CTS (Communication Technology Services)
    • CTS Corporation
    • CTTC (Catalan Telecommunications Technology Center)
    • CTU (Czech Technical University in Prague)
    • CTU (Czech Telecommunication Office)
    • CTY (Japan)
    • Cubic Corporation
    • Cubic Defence Australia
    • Cubic Telecom
    • Cumucore
    • Curtin University
    • CUSD (Collinsville Community Unit School District) 10
    • Custom MMIC
    • CW (Cambridge Wireless)
    • Cyber Forza
    • CybertelBridge
    • Cyderes
    • Cyient
    • Cyrus Technology
    • Czech Ministry of Interior
    • CZU (Czech University of Life Sciences Prague)
    • D2 Technologies
    • Dabie Mountain Regional Medical Center
    • DAEL Group
    • Daeyoun System Company
    • Dahua Technology
    • Dali Wireless
    • Dallas ISD (Independent School District)
    • Dallas Love Field Airport
    • Dalrymple Bay Coal Terminal
    • Dalton Utilities
    • DAMM Cellular Systems
    • Danaos Shipping
    • Danfoss
    • Danish National Police
    • DARS (Slovenian Motorway Company)
    • DART (Dallas Area Rapid Transit)
    • DATACOM
    • Datagear
    • Datang Renewable Power
    • Datang Telecom Technology & Industry Group
    • Dataport
    • DataSoft
    • Datatec
    • Datong Coal Mining Group
    • Datora Group
    • Datwyler IT Infra
    • DB (Deutsche Bahn)
    • DB Cargo
    • DB Schenker
    • DBcom
    • De Beers Group
    • Debswana Diamond Company
    • Deendayal Port Authority
    • DeepOcean
    • DeepSig
    • DeepSight AI Labs
    • Defra (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, United Kingdom)
    • Dejero Labs
    • DeKalb Police Department
    • DEKRA
    • Del Conca USA
    • Dell Technologies
    • Delmarva Power and Light Company (Exelon)
    • Deloitte
    • Delta Electronics
    • DEMAG (Demag Cranes & Components)
    • DEME Group
    • DENGYO (Nihon Dengyo Kosaku)
    • Dense Air
    • Detecon
    • Deutsche Messe
    • DEWA (Dubai Electricity & Water Authority)
    • DFL (German Football League)
    • DFW (Dallas Fort Worth) International Airport
    • DGS (Digital Global Systems)
    • DHL
    • DIAKINISIS
    • Dialog Axiata
    • Dialogic
    • Diamond Communications
    • Diamond Offshore Drilling
    • DIGI Communications
    • Digi International
    • Digicert
    • Digita
    • Digital Ally
    • Digital Catapult
    • Digital Enhancement
    • DigitalBridge Group
    • DigitalC
    • DigitalRoute
    • Digitata
    • DigitGate (Nanjing DigitGate Communication Technology)
    • Dimetor
    • DISH Network Corporation
    • DKK (Denki Kogyo)
    • D-Link Corporation
    • DLR (German Aerospace Center)
    • DMG Mori
    • DMI
    • DMTCL (Dhaka Mass Transit Company Limited)
    • DNA (Finland)
    • DND (Department of National Defence, Canada)
    • DNP (Dai Nippon Printing)
    • DOA (Department of Airports, Thailand)
    • DOKICI
    • DOK-ING
    • Dominion Energy
    • Dongyi Group Coal Gasification Company
    • Doogee
    • Doosan Corporation
    • Dorna Sports
    • Dortmund Fire Brigade
    • DoT (Department of Telecommunications, India)
    • Dow
    • Doyle Shipping Group
    • DPOL (Dos Palos Oro Loma) Joint Unified School District
    • DragonWave-X
    • Drakontas
    • DRDC (Defence Research and Development Canada)
    • DriveNets
    • Drone Aviation
    • DroneSense
    • Druid Software
    • DRZ (German Rescue Robotics Center)
    • DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance)
    • DSB (Directorate for Civil Protection, Norway)
    • DSBJ (Suzhou Dongshan Precision Manufacturing)
    • DSTL (Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, United Kingdom)
    • DT (Deutsche Telekom)
    • DTAC (Total Access Communication)
    • du (EITC - Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company)
    • Dubai Police
    • Dublin City Council
    • Dublin Fire Brigade
    • Duisburger Hafen
    • Duke Energy
    • Duke University
    • Dundee City Council
    • Duoc UC
    • Duons
    • duotec
    • Durabook (Twinhead International Corporation)
    • Duubee
    • DXC Technology
    • DZS
    • E.ON
    • EA Networks (Electricity Ashburton)
    • Eahison Communication
    • EANTC
    • Eastcom (Eastern Communications)
    • Easycom (Shenzhen Easycom Electronics)
    • EASYMETERING
    • EasyMile
    • E-Band Communications
    • e-BO Enterprises
    • EBRCSA (East Bay Regional Communications System Authority)
    • EBU (European Broadcasting Union)
    • ECE (European Communications Engineering)
    • Echelon Edge
    • EchoStar Corporation
    • Ecom Instruments
    • Econet Wireless Zimbabwe
    • Ecrio
    • ECT (Hutchison Ports ECT Rotterdam)
    • Edesur Dominicana
    • EDF
    • EDF Renewables
    • Edge Networks
    • Edgecore Networks
    • EdgeQ
    • Edgybees
    • E-Distribución
    • E-Distribuzione
    • edotco Group
    • EDP (Energias de Portugal)
    • EDX Wireless
    • Edzcom
    • EE
    • EEI (Edison Electric Institute)
    • Eesti Energia
    • Efacec
    • Effnet
    • EGC International
    • Egyptian Ministry of Defense
    • eHills Corporation
    • EHIME CATV
    • Eiffage Energie Systèmes
    • Eigencomm
    • eino
    • EION Wireless
    • Eir (Eircom)
    • Ekinops
    • Ekobot
    • El Corte Inglés
    • Elbit Systems
    • Eldorado Gold
    • ElectraNet
    • Electricity Canada (Canadian Electricity Association)
    • Elefante Group
    • Elefsis Shipyards
    • Eleko (Spain)
    • Elektro Gorenjska
    • Elgaugol
    • E-Lins Technology
    • Elisa
    • Elisa Estonia
    • Elisa Polystar
    • Elistair
    • Elsight
    • Elta Systems
    • Eltex
    • ELUON Corporation
    • ELVA-1
    • Emblasoft
    • Embraer
    • Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation)
    • Embratel
    • EMCO (East Mining Company)
    • Emera
    • Emerging Prairie
    • Emerson
    • Emmerson Resources
    • EMnify
    • Emory Healthcare
    • EMS (Electronic Media Services)
    • ENA (Energy Networks Association)
    • ENACOM (National Communications Agency, Argentina)
    • Enagás
    • Encore Networks
    • Endeavour Energy
    • Endesa
    • Endress+Hauser
    • Enea
    • Enecom (Energia Communications)
    • Enel
    • ENENSYS Technologies
    • Energa-Operator
    • Energex
    • Energizer Mobile (Avenir Telecom)
    • Energy School Service Center
    • EnerSys
    • EnerTribe
    • Enexis
    • ENLETS (European Network of Law Enforcement Technology Services)
    • Entel (Chile)
    • ENTELEC (Energy Telecommunications and Electrical Association)
    • Entra Energy
    • Entropia
    • Entropy Solution
    • ENWAY
    • EOG Resources
    • Eoptolink Technology
    • EOS (Electro Optic Systems)
    • Epiroc
    • EPR (Energy Project Resources)
    • EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute)
    • Equiendo
    • Equinor
    • ERA (European Union Agency for Railways)
    • Eramet
    • Eravant (SAGE Millimeter)
    • Ergon Energy
    • Ericsson
    • Erillisverkot (State Security Networks Group, Finland)
    • Errigal
    • ESA (European Space Agency)
    • ESB Networks
    • Eseye
    • Esharah Etisalat Security Solutions
    • Eskom
    • ESO EAD (Electricity System Operator, Bulgaria)
    • E-Space
    • ESR Pollmeier
    • Estalky (K-Mobile Technology)
    • ETELM
    • eTera (Sinotech R&D Group)
    • Ethernity Networks
    • Etherstack
    • Etisalat Group (e&)
    • ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea)
    • ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
    • Etteplan
    • EUCAST
    • EURECOM
    • Eureka
    • Eurofins E&E (Electrical and Electronics)
    • EUROGATE
    • Eurona
    • European University of Madrid
    • Eurotech
    • EUTC (European Utilities Telecom Council)
    • Eutelsat Communications
    • EUWENA (European Users of Enterprise Wireless Networks Association)
    • Eventide Communications
    • Everbridge
    • Evergy
    • Evolution Mining
    • Evonik Industries
    • evo-rail
    • EVRAZ
    • EWA (Electricity and Water Authority, Bahrain)
    • EWA (Enterprise Wireless Alliance)
    • EWG (East-West Gate) Intermodal Terminal
    • Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital
    • Ewing Police Department
    • Exacom
    • Exaware
    • Excelerate Technology
    • EXEO Group
    • EXFO
    • Exium
    • EXOR International
    • Expandium
    • Expeto
    • ExteNet Systems
    • Extreme Networks
    • Exxaro
    • ExxonMobil
    • EY (Ernst & Young)
    • Eyecom Telecommunications Group
    • EZcon Network
    • F2G (Far-Together) Solutions
    • F5
    • Facens University Center
    • Faena Hotel & Forum
    • Fairspectrum
    • Fairwaves
    • FANUC
    • Faraday Technology Corporation
    • Faroe Islands Police
    • Fastback Networks
    • FAW Group
    • FCCA (Forestry Conservation Communications Association)
    • FCNT (Fujitsu Connected Technologies)
    • FCPS (Fredericksburg City Public Schools)
    • FCTV (Fukui Cable Television)
    • Federal Engineering
    • Federated Wireless
    • FedEx
    • FEFU (Far Eastern Federal University)
    • Fenix Group
    • FERMAX
    • Ferrexpo
    • Ferrovial
    • Festipay
    • Festo
    • FET (Far EasTone Telecommunications)
    • FFC (French Cycling Federation)
    • FFG (Fair Friend Group)
    • FFI (Defense Research Establishment, Norway)
    • FGC (Catalan Government Railways)
    • FH Dortmund (Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts)
    • FiberHome Technologies
    • FIBERSTAMP
    • Fibocom
    • Fibrolan
    • FiduciaEdge Technologies
    • FIH Mobile
    • FII (Foxconn Industrial Internet)
    • Filtronic
    • Finavia
    • FINEP (Brazilian Innovation Agency)
    • Fingu (Wuhan Fingu Electronic Technology)
    • FinnHEMS (Finnish Helicopter Emergency Medical Services)
    • Finnish Border Guard
    • Finnish Defense Forces
    • Finnlines
    • Fiplex Communications
    • Fira (Finland)
    • Fira de Barcelona
    • Firecell
    • First Quantum Minerals
    • FirstEnergy
    • FirstGroup
    • FirstNet (First Responder Network) Authority
    • FirstPoint Mobile Guard
    • FIS (International Ski Federation)
    • Fishtech Group
    • Fiskarheden
    • FIT (Foxconn Interconnect Technology)
    • Fivecomm
    • Fives Group
    • FLARE SYSTEMS (Japan)
    • Flash Networks
    • Flash Private Mobile Networks
    • Fleet Complete
    • Flex
    • Flex Logix Technologies
    • Flexitron Group
    • Flightcell International
    • FLIR Systems
    • floLIVE
    • FlowCentric Technologies
    • Flymotion
    • FMBE (FMB Engineering)
    • FMJ Group
    • FMV (Defense Materiel Administration, Sweden)
    • Fontana Unified School District
    • Ford Motor Company
    • Formosa Plastics Transport
    • Formula One
    • Føroya Tele (Faroese Telecom)
    • Forsk
    • Forsvarsmateriell (Norwegian Defense Materiel Agency)
    • Fort Worth ISD (Independent School District)
    • Fortescue Metals Group
    • Fortinet
    • Fortress Solutions
    • Fortum
    • Four-Faith Communication Technology
    • FOX Sports
    • Foxconn (Hon Hai Technology Group)
    • FPInnovations
    • Frankfurt University Hospital
    • Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences
    • Franklin Wireless
    • Fraport
    • Fraunhofer FOKUS (Institute for Open Communication Systems)
    • Fraunhofer HHI (Heinrich Hertz Institute)
    • Fraunhofer IAO (Institute for Industrial Engineering and Organization)
    • Fraunhofer IEM (Institute for Mechatronic Systems Design)
    • Fraunhofer IIS (Institute for Integrated Circuits)
    • Fraunhofer IOSB-INA (Application Center for Industrial Automation)
    • Fraunhofer IPA (Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation)
    • Fraunhofer IPK (Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology)
    • Fraunhofer IPT (Institute for Production Technology)
    • Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft
    • Fred. Olsen Cruise Lines
    • Free Mobile
    • Free Pro
    • Freedom Mobile
    • FreedomFi
    • Freeeway
    • freenet Group
    • Freeport-McMoRan
    • French Air Force
    • French Army
    • French Ministry of Armed Forces
    • French Ministry of Interior
    • Frequencz
    • Frequentis
    • Freshwave Group
    • Frog Cellsat
    • FrontierSI
    • FRTek
    • FSG (Field Solutions Group)
    • FTI Engineering Network
    • FTIA (Finnish Transport Infrastructure Agency)
    • FTS (Formula Telecom Solutions)
    • Fujikura
    • Fujitsu
    • Fundación SSG
    • Funk-Electronic Piciorgros
    • Funkwerk
    • Furukawa Electric
    • Furuno Electric
    • FUSD (Fresno Unified School District)
    • Future Technologies Venture
    • Fuzhou Metro
    • Fuzhou Port
    • FYCMA (Málaga Trade Fair and Congress Center)
    • G REIGNS
    • G+D (Giesecke+Devrient)
    • G3 Global
    • Galati Port
    • Galilee Medical Center
    • Galtronics
    • Gamma Nu
    • Gammon Construction
    • Gandi
    • Gapwaves
    • Garderos
    • GASAG
    • Gazprom Neft
    • Gazprom Space Systems
    • GAZ-SYSTEM
    • GCF (Global Certification Forum)
    • GCT Semiconductor
    • GD (General Devices)
    • GDIT (General Dynamics Information Technology)
    • GDRFA-Dubai (General Directorate of Residency and Foreigners Affairs, Dubai)
    • GE (General Electric)
    • GE Digital
    • GE HealthCare
    • GE Renewable Energy
    • Geely Auto
    • GEKA Telecom
    • Gemtek Technology
    • General Dynamics
    • General Dynamics Mission Systems
    • Generalitat Valenciana
    • Genesis Group
    • GENEViSiO
    • Genew Technologies
    • Genmix Technology
    • GenXComm
    • GEO DATA
    • George Mason University
    • Geotab
    • GeoTraq
    • Geoverse (Commnet Wireless)
    • Gerdau
    • Gestamp
    • Getac Technology Corporation
    • Gewei (Wuhan Gewei Electronic Technology)
    • GF (GlobalFoundries)
    • GF Machining Solutions
    • GFO Investments
    • GGD (Municipal Health Service) Brabant-Zuidoost
    • Gidarjil Development Corporation
    • GIGABYTE Technology
    • Gigalane
    • GIGALIGHT
    • Gigamon
    • GigaMonster
    • GigaTera Communications
    • GigSky
    • Gilat Satellite Networks
    • GL Communications
    • Glanbia
    • Glencore
    • Global Omnium
    • Global Telecom
    • Globalgig
    • Globalstar
    • Globe Telecom
    • Globe Tracker
    • Glocall Telecoms
    • Glydways
    • GM (General Motors)
    • GMO Internet Group
    • GMP (Green Mountain Power)
    • GMR Group
    • GNConnect
    • GO Internet (Italy)
    • Gogo Business Aviation
    • Gold Fields
    • Gold Road Resources
    • GoldNet
    • Goodman Telecom Services
    • Goodmill Systems
    • Google
    • Goosetown Communications
    • Gore (W. L. Gore & Associates)
    • Gosuncn Group
    • GosuncnWelink Technology
    • Götting KG
    • GPMM (Grand Port Maritime de Marseille-Fos)
    • Grand Port Maritime de Dunkerque
    • Grange Resources
    • Granit Enterprise (Belarus)
    • Granite Telecommunications
    • Grant County Sheriffs Office (Wisconsin)
    • Grant Thornton
    • Grape One
    • Greek Police
    • Green Communications
    • Green Packet
    • Greenet
    • Green-GO Digital (ELC Lighting)
    • GreenPalm (Hangzhou GreenPalm Technology)
    • GrenTech
    • Grid Communications
    • GridGears
    • Grolleau
    • Groningen Seaports
    • Groundhog Technologies
    • Groupe ADP
    • Groupe Rémabec
    • GroupTalk
    • Grundfos
    • Grupo Alava
    • Grupo Globo
    • Grupo ICE
    • Grupo México
    • GS Lab (Great Software Laboratory)
    • GSA (Global Mobile Suppliers Association)
    • GSI (GS Instech)/GST (GS Teletech)
    • GSMA (GSM Association)
    • GTA (Global Technology Associates)
    • GTAA (Greater Toronto Airports Authority)
    • GTRK Vladivostok (Vladivostok State TV and Radio Company)
    • Guangdong Provincial Peoples Hospital
    • Guangxi Liuzhou Iron and Steel Group
    • Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport
    • Guangzhou Gosuncn Robot
    • Guangzhou Metro
    • Guangzhou Port Group
    • Guardia Civil (Spanish Civil Guard)
    • Guàrdia Urbana de Barcelona (Barcelona Urban Guard)
    • Guavus
    • Guerrilla RF
    • Guident
    • Guiyang Metro
    • Guiyang Public Security Bureau
    • Guizhou Tyre
    • GUTMA (Global UTM Association)
    • GVB (Amsterdam Transport Company)
    • GWTCA (Government Wireless Technology & Communications Association)
    • HAAS Alert
    • Haasrode Research Park
    • Haier
    • Hainan Meilan International Airport Company
    • Haivision
    • HAKOM (Croatian Regulatory Authority for Network Industries)
    • Halton Regional Police Service
    • Halys
    • Hamburg Port Authority
    • HaminaKotka Satama
    • Hampshire Fire & Rescue Service
    • Hampton Valley Forge Volunteer Fire Department
    • Hancock State Prison
    • Hancom MDS
    • Handheld Group
    • Handsfree Group
    • Hangzhou Boss Electric Appliance
    • Hangzhou Metro
    • Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport
    • Hanjin Busan Newport
    • Hankyu Hanshin Holdings
    • Hansen Technologies
    • Hanshin Cable Engineering
    • Hanshin Electric Railway
    • Hanswell
    • Hanwha Defense
    • Hanwha Techwin
    • HAPSMobile
    • Harbor Max
    • HarborLink Network
    • HarborTech Mobility
    • HARMAN DTS (Digital Transformation Solutions)
    • HAROPA PORT
    • HARTING
    • Harvilon (Shenzhen Harvilon Technology)
    • Haventure
    • Hawe Telekom
    • Hawk Networks (Althea)
    • Haystax Technology
    • HBFEC (Hebei Far East Communication System Engineering)
    • HCL Technologies
    • HCU (HafenCity University Hamburg)
    • Heathgate Resources
    • Heathrow Commercial Telecoms
    • Hebei Port Group
    • Hefei Metro
    • HEIA-FR (School of Engineering and Architecture of Fribourg)
    • Helios (Fujian Helios Technologies)
    • Helios Park Hospital Leipzig
    • Helium Foundation
    • Hellas Gold
    • Hellas Sat
    • Henan Energy & Chemical Industry Group
    • Henan Province Airport Group
    • Henan Shenhuo Group
    • Hengshen Group
    • Hengtong (Jiangsu Hengtong Optic-Elec

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