Cyber security is a form of technology and process, composed to protect computers and networks from damages, attack and unauthorized access. It includes protecting sensitive information from cyber threats like – cyber warfare, espionage and terrorism. In the worst case, network attacks access confidential information of the military, political and infrastructural assets of the country or its citizens. According to a IT market research, cyber security has become a subject of utmost importance for all governments world-wide. The U. S government, for e.g. invests a jaw dropping $13-billion-dollar figure annually on IT-security since the end of 2010.
Meanwhile, the global cyber security market reached up to $75 billion in 2015 and is estimated to reach $170 billion by 2020.
The cyber warfare involves various countries using IT to hack into other’s networks to cause disruption and damage. It is done to compromise confidential data, impair infrastructural systems of for e.g. medical and transportation services, debase communications and hindering commerce etc.
This is a disruptive usage of IT, by terrorist groups to promote their political and ideological agenda. In Cyber terrorism, the form of attack happens on telecommunications, networks and infrastructures. According to a market research, in response to the removal of Russia’s war memorial, Estonia was attacked with a vastly distributed denial of service, which impaired almost all ministry and major banks networks offline.
Cyber espionage is the practice of utilizing IT to gather sensitive information without the permission of their owners. Cyber espionage is mostly used to gain economic, political, strategic and military benefits. It is performed through utilization of cracking methods and malware.
In 2011, the office of national counter intelligence executive released a report detailing and acknowledging the legitimate attack of cyber espionage and its potential to destroy the American economic advantage.