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The Industry Policy Handbook-2015

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India has recorded impressive rates of economic growth in recent years, which provide the basis for more ambitious achievements in the future. However, a healthy rate of economic growth equalling or exceeding the current rate of 8% per annum would require major provision of infrastructure and enhanced supply of input such as energy. High economic growth would create much larger demand for energy and this would present the country with a variety of choices in terms of supply possibilities. Technology would be an important element of future energy strategy for the country, because related to a range of future demand and supply scenario would be issues of technological choices both on the supply and demand sides, which need to be understood at this stage, if they are to become an important part of India’s energy solution in the future.

The Indian government aims to achieve an economic growth rate of over 8% in the next two decades in order to be able to meet its development objectives. However, rapid economic growth would also imply the need for structural changes in the economy as well as for induced shifts in the patterns of enduse  demands. To meet the needs of the Indian populace in the most effective manner, it is important to map out the energy demand and supply dynamics in the country. This study estimates alternative trajectories of energy requirements and examines the likely fuel mix for the country under various resource and technological constraints over a 30-year time frame.

The report discusses the data, assumptions, and methodological framework used to estimate useful energy requirements of the country based on demographic and economic drivers. Technological assessments of resources and energy conversion processes have been described in the report. Economic and technological scenarios have been developed within the integrated modelling framework to assess the best energy mix during the modelling time frame. Based on the scenario assessment, the report provides directions to various stakeholders associated with the Indian energy sector including policymakers, technologists, and investors.

The report clearly points towards the country’s increasing import dependence of all fossil fuels. It also indicates that coal would continue to play a key role in meeting the country’s energy requirements. However, the indigenous availability of coal is expected to plateau in the next couple of decades with the current exploitation plans and technology. The need for energy efficiency in the end-use sectors and radical policy changes in the transport sector is also highlighted. The study points towards focussing efforts simultaneously on the demand and supply sides for the economy to attain the most efficient utilization of available resources.

Introduction:

The GoI (Government of India) plans to achieve a GDP (gross domestic product) growth rate of 10% in the Twelfth Five Year Plan and maintain an average growth rate of about 8% in the next 15 years (Planning Commission 2002). Given the plans for rapid economic growth, it is evident that the country’s requirements for energy and supporting infrastructure would increase rapidly as well. In order to enable policy-makers to undertake timely decisions, it is extremely important to estimate the magnitude of total energy requirements as well as examine the economic, environmental, and geopolitical implications of India’s alternative energy pathways in the next few decades. While factors such as demographic profile, change in lifestyle, and consumer preferences dictate the level of useful energy demands, the availability and prices of resources and technologies influence the levels and patterns of final energy requirements in the future.

Numerous policy reforms over the past 20 years have shifted India’s energy sector from a predominantly government-owned system towards one based on market principles, offering a more level playing field for both public and private sectors. Political complexity and a tradition of socialist economic practices, however, hindered the complete liberalisation of India’s energy sector, leading to sub-optimal outcomes. In this sense, the huge blackouts that occurred in northern India in July 2012 could be seen as a consequence within the framework of incomplete market liberalisation.

The goal of providing energy access to the entire population led to well-meaning policies designed to  protect the poor, but resulted in a system of untargeted producer and consumer subsidies that prevent a more thorough implementation of a well-functioning and financially sound energy sector. In combination with an industrial policy that aims to protect the indigenous manufacturing industry through import substitution, India now finds itself trapped halfway along the transition towards an open and well-performing energy sector.

India’s energy sector is increasingly unable to deliver a secure supply of energy amid growing demand and fuel imports. In conjunction with a rising subsidy level and systemic failure to ensure proper revenue collection along the value chain, the financial capacity of energy sector players is significantly undermined. Lack of sufficient capacity to make timely and adequate investments gives reason to fear that India is heading towards energy crises. Increasing import dependency exposes India to greater geopolitical risks, fluctuating world market prices and intensifying international competition.

Indian energy policy cannot be set in isolation and needs to account for rising global interdependence, while simultaneously communicated appropriately to the public and reflected in policy debates. India should overhaul its current patchwork of energy policies in favour of a comprehensive and clear-cut policy that encourages economic and social development through reliable energy supplies. There are six main challenges that need to be addressed to create a well-functioning and financially-viable energy market in India:

The core capacities of players in India’s energy sector – mainly, energy companies – should be improved. Energy players need to be commercially viable, with access to adequate financial resources. Their managerial autonomy from central or state ministries is imperative for timely investment, meanwhile ownership should be properly separated from management. The key issue is not private- versus publicly-owned entities; rather, ownership should not interfere with market principles. Management must be able to freely operate based on sound market analysis and economic deliberations. These players should be enabled to embrace the latest energytechnology and improve their managerial expertise.
Pricing mechanisms in the energy sector must ensure commercial viability and send proper signals to the market. The current rigid pricing setting mechanism, which is de facto determined by the government, should be reformed. Sector regulators should be enabled to operate independently from political influence. End-use pricing should support the government’s policy for demand-side management and facilitate a rational allocation of resources along the valuechain. Price mechanisms need to reflect realistic opportunity costs, otherwise India’s energy sector will continue to operate inefficiently, burdened by the recurring fiscal and supply-side problems well-known to Indian policy makers.
India requires significant investment to meet its growing energy demand and provide access to all citizens, many of which are excluded from access to modern and clean sources of energy. Investment in the energy sector should focus on adopting the latest, green growth energy technology for India’s sustainable energy future. Creating the necessary framework conditions, including moving away from import substitution policy, will be critical to attract much needed investment and to compete internationally for investment.
An increase in effective implementation of energy policies is required through the improvement of bureaucratic and administrative processes to assure a timely completion of energy projects. This will also contain unnecessary cost escalation of complex projects. Furthermore, intra-ministerial and inter-governmental (between central and state governments) coordination should be enhanced.
Truly integrated and consistent energy policy is critical to guide and direct India’s energy sector and ensure investment. Pursuing multiple policy objectives through one energy policy can potentially undermine the actual achievement of energy policy objectives. India’s legitimate policy goal to provide affordable energy to the poor should be pursued separately, through social policies and supportive government programmes, which do not impede the investment decisions and managerial practices of energy companies.
Strong political will is a prerequisite to successfully cope with energy sector challenges. India should complete the unfinished reforms on its energy sector based on market-principles. Consistent political messages and effective public communication are crucial to obtain the public support for the necessary energy sector reforms. The pace and depth of reform in the energy sub-sectors varies strongly, which causes distortions
throughout the system. The overview of individual fuel sectors shows that different degrees of progresses were made in each of them over the last two decades.
The power sector achieved a greater degree of liberalisation, allowing private investment along the entire value chain: generation, transmission and distribution. However, considerable parts of the sector remain under the influence of both central and state governments. The power sector faces a shortage of fuels, insufficient infrastructure and financial weakness of state-owned power companies due to distorted pricing mechanisms and a systematic weakness to enforce legitimate revenue realisation. Effective policy implementation to attract private investment is necessary to ensure a reliable and adequate access.
The coal sector remains the most inefficient and least open to private investment, despite coal being the country’s primary source of fuel. The near monopoly of two public companies that obstruct the necessary increase of coal production and cause serious fuel shortages should be ended. Private participation in coal mining on a level playing field with state entities should be allowed.
The oil and gas sector is highly liberalised to attract private investment and to increase domestic production. However, prices of petroleum products were only partly deregulated. The government, in practice, still determines retail prices for products considered to have social value through the ownership of oil companies. Untargeted subsidies for some petroleum products fail to bring the intended benefits to the poor, and instead result in a considerable financial burden to the downstream oil companies and deter private investment in the retail sector. The prices and allocation of natural gas are also de facto determined by the government. This has resulted in continuously declining interest of private and foreign investors in India’s oil and gas sector. Full deregulation of pricing coupled with targeted provision of subsidies for the poor is needed to ensure sufficient investment into the sector.
The renewable sector features strong private investments, which are essential to materialize the potential of renewables for supplying a clean and modern energy, particularly in rural areas. However, government policy that imposes mandatory domestic-content requirements, particularly for the solar industry, will most likely hinder the expansion of the sector. The growth of strong local manufacturing capacities can be achieved through more open market policies and investment in R&D, rather than relying on import substitution policies.
The nuclear sector is exclusively controlled by the central government and recently obtained access to the global nuclear industry and technology. However, it faces rising public opposition over safety and environmental impacts. India’s unique nuclear programme, which aims to utilise domestically abundant resources, should be carefully assessed in terms of its role in India’s longterm energy security and sustainable development.  To complete the transformation of India’s energy sector into an open and functioning energy market, the country needs strong political leadership to convey clear policy messages. Frequent populist
remarks, which, for example, promise free electricity, are not conducive to creating the right public perception of energy as a commodity, not an entitlement. Furthermore, in the context of an increasing need for investments and the integration of India’s energy sector into the global energy market, India needs to align its energy policies and institutions with global practices.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. POWER SECTOR: REGULATORY AND POLICY ENVIRONMENT
1.1 Sector Overview
1.2 Demand - Supply Analysis and Future Outlook
1.3 Evolution of Indian Power Industry
1.4 Regulatory and Policy Frame work
1.5 Policy Timeline
1.6 Understanding Indian Power and Electricity Regulations and Policies
1.6.1 The Electricity Act, 1910
1.6.2 The Electricity Act, 1948
1.6.3 DVC Act 1948 / Rules and Service Regulations
1.6.4 The Punjab Reorganization Act, 1966
1.6.5 IIP Process, 1991
1.6.6 Mega Power Policy, 1995
1.6.7 The Electricity Amendment Act, 1998
1.6.8 The Regulatory Commission Act, 1998
1.6.9 Electricity Act, 2003
1.6.10 National Electricity Policy
1.6.11 National Tariff Policy
1.6.12 Indian Electricity Grid Code Regulations (IEGC-2010)
1.6.13 Indian Electricity Grid Code Regulations (IEGC-2010)
1.6.14 Renewable Tariff Regulations 2012-13 (CERC)
1.6.15 Model Regulations for REC Accreditation (CERC)
1.6.16 Sate Sector Reforms
1.6.16.1 MOU with States
1.6.16.2 Andhra Pradesh Electricity Reforms Act
1.6.16.3KarnatakaElectricity Reforms Act, 1999
1.6.16.4 Orissa Electricity Reforms Act
1.6.17 Rural Electricity Policy
1.6.17.1 Rajeev Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana
1.6.18 Other Policies, Programmes, and Notifications
1.6.18.1 New Hydro Policy 2008
1.6.18.2 Mega Power Projects: Revised Policy Guidelines
1.6.18.3 Procedure for Processing of Proposals for IPPs/CPPs seeking Coal Blocks/Coal Linkage Received from the Ministry of Coal
1.6.18.4 Guidelines for Allocation of Coal Blocks/Coal Linkages for Power Sector
1.6.18.5 Policy on Hydro Power Development
1.6.18.6 Major Policy Initiatives and Decisions
1.6.18.7 Notification Regarding Transfer of BTPS to NTPC
1.6.18.8 Principles/Procedures Adopted for Grant of LOA to the Power Projects
2. COAL SECTOR: REGULATORY AND POLICY ENVIRONMENT
2.1 Sector Overview
2.1.1 Demand and Supply Situation
2.1.2 Supply Bottlenecks and Future Outlook
2.1.2 Key Players and Market Share
2.2 Understanding Indian Power and Electricity Regulations and Policies
2.3 Institutional Structure
2.4 Coal Committees
2.4.1. Linkage Committees
2.4.2 Energy Coordination Committee
2.4.3 Screening Committee
2.4.4 Standing Committee on Safety in Coal Mines
2.5 Key Legislations
2.5.1 Coal Bearing Area (Acquisition and Development) Act, 1957
2.5.2 Coking Coal Mines (Emergency Provisions) Act, 1971
2.5.3 Coal Mines (Nationalization) Act, 1973
2.5.4 Coal Mines (Conservation and Development) Act, 1974
2.5.5 Coal India (Regulation and Validation) Act, 2000
2.6 Key Policies Governing the Sector
2.6.1 New Coal Distribution Policy (NCDP)
2.6.2 Policy Framework and Guide lines Governing Captive Coal Mining
2.6.3 Policies and Guidelines for Coal Washings in India Other Policy Initiatives and Measures
2.7 Recent Significant Policy Developments
3. OIL AND GAS SECTOR: POLICY AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
3.1 Sector Overview
3.1.1 Oil Price Volatility
3.1.2 Oil and Indian Economy
3.1.3 Key Players and Market Share
3.1.4 Government Initiatives
3.2 Future Outlook
3.3 Understanding the Oil and Gas Legislation
3.3.1 Petroleum Act, 1934
3.3.2 The Oil Fields Act, 1948
3.3.3 P & N G Rules, 1959
3.3.4 The Petroleum Pipeline Act, 1962
3.3.5 The Oil Industry Act, 1974
3.3.6 Petroleum Rules, 1976
3.3.7 Petroleum Amendments Rules, 2001
3.3.8 P & N G Rules, 2002
3.3.9 Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006
3.3.10 The Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology Act, 2007
3.3.11 Safety in Offshore Operations Rules, 2008
3.3.12 P & N G Rules, 2009
3.3.13 NEPL
3.3.14 Environmental Law
3.3.15 Competition Law
3.4 Oil and Gas Policy
3.4.1 BMC Policy
3.4.2 Policy on Acquisition of Geoscientific Data through Private Funding
3.4.3 Auto Fuel Policy 2003
3.4.4 Biodiesel Policy
3.4.5 Policies relating to PSCs
3.4.5.1 Policy for Merger under NELP III & NELP IV
3.4.5.2 Policy for Substitution
3.4.5.3 Policy for Determination of Cost of Unfinished Minimum Work Programmed
3.4.5.4 Policy for CBM Extension
3.4.6 Policy Guidelines for Management of Oil and Natural Gas
3.4.7 LPG Policy and Guidelines
3.4.8 Rajiv Gandhi LPG Vitaran Yojana (RGGLV), 2009
3.4.9 Guidelines for Selection of Regular LPG Distributorship, 2010
3.4.10 Refill Ceiling and Restructuring of LPG distributorships, 2013
3.4.11 Policy Guidelines for Retail Outlets, 2003-2014
3.4.12 Natural Gas Policy Guidelines, 2006-2015
3.4.13 Foreign Direct Investment Policy
3.4.14 Policy on Disinvestment
3.5 Regulation
3.5.1 Directorate General of Hydrocarbons
3.5.2 Regulatory Board
3.5.3 Oil Industry Development Board
3.6 Policy Performance: An Analysis
4. RENEWABLE SECTOR: POLICY AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
4.1 Renewable Energy as Compelling Need for Energy Security
4.2 Sector Overview
4.2.1 Key Players and Market Share
4.3 Solar Power Policy
4.3.1. MNRE Strategic Plan for Renewable Energy – Targets and Goals
4.3.2 JNN Solar Mission
4.3.3 Central Government Policy Initiatives
4.3.4 State Government Policy Initiatives
4.3.5 Regulatory Framework
4.4 Wind Power Policy
4.4.1 Central Government Policy Initiatives
4.4.2 State Government Policy Initiatives
4.5 Bio Power Policy
4.5.1 National Policy on Bio-fuel
4.5.2 Central Government Policy Initiatives
4.5.3 State Government Policy Initiatives
5. TELECOMMUNICATION SECTOR: POLICY AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
5.1 Sector Overview
5.1.1 Key Players and Market Share
5.2 Telecom Policies
5.2.1 National Telecom Policy, 1994
5.2.2 Addendum to NTP, 1999
5.2.3 New Telecom Policy, 1999
5.2.4 National Numbering Plan, 2003
5.2.5 Broadband policy, 2004
5.2.6 Amendment to Broadband Policy, 2004
5.2.7 National Telecom Policy 2012
5.2.8 Office Memorandum regarding National Telecom Policy 2012
5.2.9 Investment Policy
5.3 Telecom Legislation
5.3.1 Indian Telegraph Act, 1885
5.3.2 India Wireless Act, 1933
5.3.3 Indian Telegraph Rule
5.3.4 Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) Act, 1997
5.3.5 Restructuring cell
5.3.6 Information Technology Act, 2000
5.3.7 Subordinate Legislations
5.4 Policy Performance and Evaluation
6. ROAD TRANSPORTATION: POLICY AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
6.1 Sector Overview
6.2 Indian Roads and Economy
6.3 Understanding the Policy and Regulatory Landscape
6.4 Policy Performance
6.5 Road Ahead
6.5.1 Act, Rules, and Notification
6.5.2 Road Transport Corporations Act, 1950
6.5.3 National Highways Act, 1956
6.5.4 Motor Vehicles Act, 1988
6.5.5 National Highways Authority of India Act, 1998
6.5.6 Control of National Highways (Land and Traffic) Act, 2002
6.5.7 National Highways Authority of India (Amendment) Act, 2013
6.5.8 National Highways Rules 1957
6.5.9 Central Motor Vehicles Rules 1989
6.5.10 Carriage by Road Act and Rules
6.5.11 Central Road Fund Act and Rules
6.5.12 National Highways Fee (Determination of Rates and Collection) Rules
6.5.13 National Highways Tribunal Rules
6.5.14 Notifications under Motor Vehicle Legislation
6.5.15 Notifications on National Highways
6.5.16 Notifications regarding Automotive Industry Standards
7. INDIAN RAILWAYS: POLICY LANDSCAPE
7.1 An Overview
7.2 Trade Logistics and Railways
7.2 The Railway Act
7.3 Government Initiatives and Performance
8. PORTS AND SHIPPING: POLICY LANDSCAPE
8.1 Sector Overview
8.1.1 Key Players and Outlook
8.1.2 The Industry and the Economy
8.1.3 Understanding Policy Implications
8.1.4 Future Road Map
8.2 Legislation
8.2.1 The Coasting Vessels Act, 1838
8.2.2 The Indian Ports Act 1908
8.2.3 The Inland Vessels Act, 1917
8.2.4 Indian Carriage Goods Sea Act, 1925
8.2.5 The Dock Workers (Regulation of Employment) Act, 1948
8.2.6 Amendment of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1958
8.2.7 The Merchant Shipping Act, 1958 (as amended)
8.2.8 The MPT Act, 1963
8.2.9 NW1 Allahabad to Haldia Stretch of Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly River Act, 1982
8.2.10 NW2 Sadiya Dhubri Stretch of River Brahmaputra Act, 1988
8.2.11 The Multimodal Transportation of Goods Act, 1993
8.2.12 Ammendment of Multimodal Transportation of Goods Act, 1993
8.2.13 Seamen’s Provident Fund (AMENDMENT) Bill, 2007
8.2.14 Indian Maritime University Act, 2008
8.2.15 Bhadrachalam- Rajahumundry Stretch of River Godavari and Wazirabad- Vijaywada Stretch of River Krishna Act, 2008
8.2.16 NW5 Talcher-Dhamra Stretch of Rivers, Geonkhali-charbatia Stretch of East Coast Canal, Charbatia-dhamra Stretch of Matai River and Mahanadi Delta River Act 2008
8.2.17 The Seamen’s Provident Fund Act
8.2.18 The Seamen’s Provident Fund Scheme
8.2.19 The Inland Waterways Authority of India Act
8.2.20 Major Ports Regulatory Authority Bill, 2009
8.2.21 DRAFT Shipping Trade Practices (STP) Bill, 2010
8.2.22 Port Entry Rules 2012
8.2.23 Management of Safe Operation of Ships Amendment Rules
8.2.24 Registration of Fishing Boats Amendment Rules
8.2.25 The Merchant Shipping (Form of Certificate of Insurance for Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage) Rules, 1985
8.2.26 Kakinada-Puducherry Stretch of Canals and Kaluvelly Tank
8.2.27 Delegating Powers to State Governments
for Registration of Fishing Vessels
8.2.28 Exemption from Registration for Vessels less than 20 mts
8.2.29 Fishing Boat Specified
8.2.30 Notifications Regarding Appointment of Registrars Indian fishing vessel
8.2.31 Notification Appointing Receiver of Wrecks
8.3 Policy Analysis
8.3.1 Land Policy for Major Ports, 2010
8.3.2 Policy for Preventing Private Sector Monopoly in Major Ports
8.3.3 Dredging Policy
8.3.4 Cruise Shipping Policy
9. HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT
9.1 Sector Overview
9.1.1 Demand Supply Situation
9.1.2 Key Players and Market Share
9.1.3 Understanding Policy Landscape
9.1.4 Outlook
9.2 Legislation
9.2.1 Metro Railways Construction Act 1978
9.2.2 The Constitution (Seventy - Fourth Amendment) Act, 1992 Background
9.2.3 Urban Land (Ceiling & Regulation) Repeal Act, 1999
9.2.4 The Metro Railways (Operation and Maintenance) Act, 2002
9.2.5 The Metro Railways (Amendment) Act, 2009
9.2.6 Legislative Initiative by the Ministry
9.2.7 Model Municipal Law
9.2.8 Model Building Bye Laws
9.2.9 Legislative Framework
9.2.10 Legislative Competence for Metro Rail System in the Country
9.2.11 Subordinate Legislations
9.2.12 Promotion of Non-handicapping Environment for the Disabled and Elderly Persons
9.3 Policies
9.3.1 National Urban Sanitation Policy
9.3.2 National Urban Transport Policy
9.3.3 National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
9.3.4 Service Level Benchmarks
9.3.5 Legislative Competence for Metro Rail System in the country
9.3.6 Memorandum for Website Maintenance Policy
9.3.7 Content Ownership, Moderation & Approval Policy (COMAP)
9.3.8 Content Review Policy (CRP)
9.3.9 Content Archival Policy
9.3.10 Security Policy
10. ENERGY AND INFRASTRUCTURE POLICY OUTLOOK


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Reports Details

Published Date : Jul 2015
No. of Pages :300
Country :Global
Category :Energy and Power
Publisher :Boodle Consulting Pvt. Ltd.
Report Delivery By :Email
Report Delivery Time :12 to 24 hours after placing the order.

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